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Missing cover of a manhole on mall road

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20140427_133158398273483

For almost a month, cover of a manhole is missing on mall road near Sher -e-Punjab dhaba. Some people have almost injured themselves .Today, I saw an elderly gentleman almost got injured.this manhole on mall gets temporary cover but in a day or two it’s get coverless.Why it’s taking so long for a small manhole to get a permanent cover on mall? Is the poor election code to be blamed yet again!

If one walks through whole of lower bazaar and reaches sher -e-Punjab dhaba and then turns left to walk towards the mall, he or she will be greeted by this coverless hole.

Opinion

The Western Himalayan Kinnaura Tribe – Composition, Customs and Social Transformation

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By- Dr. Devender Sharma, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Centre of Excellence Government College Sanjauli, Shimla (Himachal Pradesh).

The focus of this piece is on the Western Himalayan Kinnaura tribe, majorly concerning their composition, customs and social transformation. Their ethnic-religious and socio-linguistic composition has been discussed as well as birth, death and marriage related customs of the tribe have been elaborated. Also, a brief evaluation concerning their recent social transformation has been done and issues related to the modernization and developmental drives furthered by the mainland has been highlighted. Lastly, a discussion has been laid concerning how all this directly or indirectly impacts the socio-cultural compactness of this tribe in many ways.

Ethnic-Religious Composition

The major tribes of Himachal Pradesh include Kinnaura, Lahaula, Gaddi and Gujjar. These groups were included in the schedule of the tribes at different point of time and under different presidential orders. These tribes as well as other related minor tribes fall in the scheduled list under the Fifth schedule of the Indian constitution. Sticking to the Kinnauras they are considered active, generous, frank, peace loving and hospitable people who are the inhabitants of the border district of Kinnaur in Himachal Pradesh. Since time immemorial this area has been outward looking and has economic, social, and cultural ties with other parts of Himachal Pradesh, Ladakh and even Western Tibet (specifically its Ngari Prefecture). They belong to the Mongoloid race but have been considerably intermingled with the Indo-Aryans and are strongly marked with features of the Tartar physiognomy. The people of Upper Kinnaur are of a fair complexion and have small oblong eyes. Then, Central Kinnaur is inhabited by a slightly fair muscular race of mixed origin known as Kunets. In Lower Kinnaur the people vary in color and are mostly dark brown or yellowish white.

Co-existence of Unorthodox Hinduism and Tibetan Buddhism defines the religious space of Kinnaur. While, Lower and Central Kinnaur have large influences of Hinduism which in many ways is very separate from the mainland Hinduism practiced in specifically the Hindi Belt states, as mainly deity worship is followed. On the other hand, in Upper Kinnaur Buddhism is what is dominant. But overall an amalgamated culture exists in the area where the tribal people mostly live-in peace and harmony.

 Socio-Linguistic Composition

The Buddhists who are majorly in Upper Kinnaur do not follow the caste system, but the caste system is followed by the Hindus which are mostly in Lower Kinnaur and in some areas of Central Kinnaur. The Hindus divide themselves into the Khasia or Khasas and Berus. The Khasas are treated as upper caste and includes Rajputs or Kanets and has been at the highest rung of the social ladder for generations. Meanwhile, the Berus are treated as lower castes and includes Chamangs, Domangs, Ores and Kolis. The Chamangs were traditionally shoemakers and weavers, the Domangs were blacksmiths as well as gold and silversmiths, and the Ores were carpenters.

Concerning the linguistic composition of the Kinnauras they basically speak the Kinnauri language which is part of the Tibeto-Kinnauri language family which includes languages spoken in neighboring Lahaul as well as Western Tibet, Ladakh and even Baltistan. Mainly Kinnauri/ Hamskad or Milchan is the most spoken linguistic dialect and is majorly spoken in Lower Kinnaur. According to some experts, this linguistic dialect shows close affinities to Mundari (spoken in Chota Nagpur), as they believe long back an amalgamation in this area had taken place between the Munda aboriginal tribes and a Tibetan tribe. Then, the Chitkuli dialect is mostly spoken by people living on the Indo-China border in the Baspa Valley, the Jangshung dialect is spoken mostly in the Morang tehsil and the Sumcho, Sunnam and Chhoyuli dialect is spoken in the Poh administrative division. Bhoti Kinnauri is spoken in border areas with Lahaul-Spiti, and Pahari Kinnauri which has some similarity with the Western Pahari languages is spoken by mainly the scheduled caste groups of Nichar, Kalpa, and Sangla tehsils in Kinnaur.

Birth, Death and Marriage Related Customs

After the birth of a child in the Kinnaura tribe, the naming ceremony is performed by a Buddhist Lama (For Hindus also in majority cases, as due to absence of Brahmins in Kinnaur the Lamas are given that status). In most areas when the child is of one or two years his head is shaved and this ceremony is called karachogmig. An auspicious date is taken from the Lama for removing the child’s hair, during that time the Lama also performs the ceremony of hom after which a feast is held and khura, luchi and chhoma is cooked and distributed.

Concerning death, again the Lamas are consulted, and advice is taken from them concerning the method to be followed for the disposal of the dead. There are three methods prevalent among Kinnauras for the disposal of the dead i.e., Dubant (drowning), Phukant (burning), Bhakhant, (eating by vultures and birds). However due to rapidly increasing contact with the mainland, they are abandoning these old customs concerning death and are mostly burning the dead bodies. The elder son or the nearest relatives lit a person’s funeral pyre and then the ashes are collected and thrown in the river Sutlej or taken to either Rewalsar in Mandi District of Himachal Pradesh or to Mansarowar in Western Tibet. On the thirteenth day a ceremony locally called damkochung which literally means the good and bad has been performed. A feast is then offered to relatives and friends and after that the family leads a normal life. After one year of the death a ceremony called ukhyang or phulech something like an annual shradh is performed by especially the Hindus. At that time, the Lama receives food and clothes in the name of deceased and a goat dressed in a dead man’s clothes is sacrificed and eaten by the members of his kindred. This finally ends the period of mourning.

Though variations in the performance of the custom of birth and death exist from village to village both in Hindus and Buddhists but this description is widely applicable. In relation to marriage there are four recognized forms of marriage through which Kinnauras marry namely the janetang or janckang (arranged marriage), the dam tangshisor or jushis (love marriage), the daroshor dab-dab or kuchis (marriage by capture), and har (enticing away some one’s wife). But in the modern times arranged and love marriages are the most common. Marriage alliances in the especially the Buddhists does not concern caste but in the Hindus caste and gotra system is followed like elsewhere in India. The marriage ceremony is done again by the Lamas by chanting certain Hymns. Shockingly, polyandrous marriages are also still happening in the Kinnaura tribe and in some places several brothers share one wife. The eldest brother marries, and his wife becomes the common wife to the rest of the brothers. The male children of a polyandrous marriage inherit the property jointly and it remains intact from generation to generation.

Social transformation of the Kinnaura Tribe

Currently, since the last few decades the Kinnaura tribe is in the phase of transition. Kinnaur had old trade relations with the Western Tibet which was primarily based on trade of woolen cloths but since the late 1960’s there has been a change in their economic activities especially after the Indo-Sino war which led to the establishment of more connectivity with mainland India. A significant change which has been noted since then is the transformation of the tribe from a pastoral community to an agricultural community. Also, the tourism and hospitality sector has been on the rise and such an economic transformation combined with education and awareness related efforts of the governments as well as NGOs has further propelled socio-cultural transformation in the region and a lot of progress has taken place. Polyandry and Polygamy marriage practices are on the decline and the proportion of social and economic progression is on the rise amongst especially the youth, housing and sanitation conditions have also improved considerably. The tribal people who earlier shied away from outsiders have now become more sociable and confident and are more receptive to new ideas and technological innovations. Electrification and internet connectivity has also added to the economic potential and prosperity of the tribal area.

On the flip side, with this transformation new classes have emerged in the region which have created further differentiation in the peasantry. A new rich class who entered economic activities like tourism, hydal projects, government services, and cash crops have come up, while to serve them a new local workforce has also emerged which is creating more class divide within the tribe. Simultaneously, the caste-based discrimination in especially Central and Lower Kinnaur has still not gone away and progressive modernization has not arrived even after more connectivity. Allegedly, according to some locals many ultra-left organizations are running ideological agendas using discrimination on caste and class-based lines to create cades which according to them invariably is worsening the situation more. On the flipside, again allegedly according to many local’s mainland Hinduism’s sanskritization element is creeping in through ultra-right organizations, who are trying hard to influence the unorthodox deity-based Hinduism practiced in Kinnaur and are imposing Vaishnavism based practices which according to them is creating more divide between the Hindus and Buddhists and are hampering the harmonious religious and cultural linkages prevalent in the tribal region for centuries. All this may further lead to more divisions in the Kinnaura tribe, majority of whom till now believe that the tribe comes first for them over religion or any ideological inclination.

Equally, more developmental projects have led to increased governmental interference creating more ecological damage in the region. Especially hydro-power projects in the name of development, are spelling doom in the tribal area and ruining the environmental balance. Those opposing these projects argue that a mere visit by tourists or a heavy influx of vehicles can damage the fragile ecology of the area and that the building up of massive hydropower projects will simply ruin the beautiful environment of the area forever. A recent study conducted by Indian Council of Forestry Research and many other organizations found out that out of the 38 hydro projects taken for study in Satluj basin of Kinnaur district, 20 have threatened the faunal species. Out of 368 bird species recorded, 51 are broad endemics distributed in South Asian mainland. Also, these projects are causing climate change in the region which is affecting the agricultural sector in a massive way.

Therefore, the ongoing social transformation of the Kinnauri tribe has many pro’s and con’s, on the one hand more connectivity has opened additional avenues for the tribal people by connecting them to the outer world. But on the other hand, the same has created serious problems for the tribal people and their area which may have a lot of consequences in the long run.

Image Credit: Behance and Trip

Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors. They do not purport to reflect the opinions or views of the Himachal Watcher or its members.

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Himachal: COVID-19 Claims 13 Lives as State Reports Over 900 Cases in 24 Hours

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Himachal Pradesh COVID-19 report april 14

Shimla- COVID-19 claimed 13 more lives in Himachal Pradesh as the state recorded 925 new cases in 24 hours. According to the latest update released by the State health department, Kangra district reported the highest 178 cases, followed by Solan (143), Mandi (114), and Shimla (104). 

As a matter of concern, 48 students of Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya School, Sarol, in Chamba district also tested positive, creating a stir in the region. Samples of the staff were also taken following it. The school was declared as a containment zone. 

Find more district-wise details of daily cases below:

Himachal Pradesh Daily covid-19 deaths apri 14, 2021

Kangra district also reported the highest six COVID-19 deaths, followed by Shimla (3), Mandi (2), and Una (2). The deceased were aged between 42 – 84 years and included eight females and five males. Find the details of the deceased below:

Himachal Pradesh daily covid-19 cases on april 14, 2021

The case and death tallies in the state have now jumped to 72,319 and 1135 respectively.

While speaking to the media today, Chief Minister Jairam Thakur admitted that the surge in cases is rising across the nation, but maintained that there were no plans to impose a lockdown in the state so far.  

The state government, however, today decided to postpone the ongoing examinations for undergraduate classes and 10 and 12 classes of the HP Board of School Education.

 

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Campus Watch

After CBSE, Himachal Postpones Board and UG Exams Till May 1st

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college and board exams in himachal pradesh postponed

Shimla-The ongoing examinations of the Himachal Pradesh Board of School Education and under graduate classes have been postponed, a spokesperson of the HP Government informed today. He said that the state government has taken the decision keeping in view the health concerns of the students and parents.

These exams included the ongoing board examinations for Class 10th and 12th and UG examinations starting on 17th April to 17th May, 2021.

The government said that the situation would be reviewed on 1st May, 2021, and further directions would be issued accordingly. In a separate notification, the HPBOSE said that the schools exams for the two board classes were postponed till May 17, 2021. The Board also relieved all the staff engaged in conducting examinations including Superintendents, Deputy Superintendents, Flying Squads, Invigilators and Peons except Chowkidards. 

The decision of the government came after the Central Board of School Education (CBSE) today decided to cancel the examinations for class 10 and postpone exams for Class 12 due to the ongoing surge in daily COVID-19 infections in the country. The Board said that there was a constant demand for postponing the exams from students, parents, and the state governments.

However, the state government in Himachal Pradesh had decided to go on with exams amid the peeking second wave of the pandemic.

“The pandemic situation in the country is seeing a resurgence of COVID 19 positive cases in many states, with a few states having been affected more than others. In this situation, schools have been shut down in 11 states. Unlike State Boards, CBSE has an all-India character, and therefore, it is essential to hold exams simultaneously throughout the country,” the Union Education Ministry today said.

Looking to the present situation of the pandemic and school closures, the Ministry decided that the Board Exams for Class XII to be held from May 4thto June, 14th, 2021 would be postponed. The situation will be reviewed on 1st June 2021 by the Board. A notice of at least 15 days will be given before the start of the examinations.

 The Board Exams for Class X to be held from 4thMay to June 14th, 2021 were  cancelled.

“The results of Class Xth Board will be prepared on the basis of an objective criterion to be developed by the Board. Any candidate who is not satisfied with the marks allocated to him/her on this basis will be given an opportunity to sit in an exam as and when the conditions are conducive to hold the exams,” the Ministry said.

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