Connect with us

HW Community

Meet the Himachali leading BSF’s extraordinary Mt. Everest expedition

Published

on

Avinash Negi BSF

He is a certified mountaineer, paraglider, skier and has passed advanced courses in these adventure sports with excellent grades. 

Shimla: What does it mean to lead a team of 25 members on an extraordinary expedition to scale the Mount Everest, the highest mountain in the world,  and bring them all back safely alongwith collecting and bringing back 1000 kilograms of non-biodegradable waste left by other mountaineers?

Considering the challenges that the mighty Everest throws up, it would be a hell of a job for any leader, we believe.

The expedition is real and Col. Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore, Union Minister of States for the Youth Affairs and Sports has already flagged off this 90-day expedition of the Border Security Forces (BSF) on March 20, 2018.

BSF Team

As a matter of proud for Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur’s Avinash  Negi (37), who is currently serving as the Deputy Commandant, BSF, has been elected as one of the two leaders for the expedition alongside Padma Shri Love Raj Singh Dharamshaktu, Assistant Commandant, who has scaled Everest six times.

Himachal Watcher talked to Avinash to know more about this extraordinary expedition and about him. We found out that the officer is not only an adventure sports lover but also has his own philosophy that has been shaped by the mountains or adventures he experienced.

Before, talking about Avinash, first, we should get an outline of the expedition and its objectives.

The prime objective of the Expedition is to pay reverences to the goddess of mountains and to hoist Tricolour on the top of world’s highest peak under the campaign ‘Clean Himalayas, Clean Glaciers’. This gesture will not only sensitize the locals and mountaineers and trekkers community towards cleanliness but also help us spread the message of Swacch Bharat Mission to neighbouring countries.

37-Day Training for the Expedition

Avinash and other team members have undergone a rigorous training of 37 days in the Pir Panjal and Dhauladhar ranges in Manali to prepare for the expedition.

Basically, all the team members are qualified mountaineers, therefore, the focus of the training was to increase endurance and stamina,

Avinash told HW.

BSF Mt. Everest expedition 2018

Their days began with running in hills for nearly 15 to 20 kilometres with their back-packs on, followed by handball or football games and yoga classes under a trained yoga instructor.

In yoga sessions, they mostly concentrated on the breathing practices. Besides this, they also did snow and ICE climbing – the most essential part of the Mt. Everest Expedition.

Other than that, the team members scaled peaks upto altitudes of 14,000 to 15,000 feet. The focus was on trekking with full gears with night climbing exercises as all the journey performed and route travelled above the base camp of the Everest is usually undertaken at early mornings or late nights, Avinash said.  

BSF Mountaineering training

Avinash during the training period

The reason behind night climbing is that during the daytime, the probability of avalanches is higher due to the melting effect of sunlight deep within glaciers.

The training also included lectures on the first aids, CPR practice, and ladder crossing which is used to cross craves.  

He further informed that normally, upto the base camp, one person carries a weight depending on his needs. Nevertheless, the weight of the essential equipments like oxygen cylinders, food and water reach upto 15 to 18 kilograms.

The most important question was that how the team would bring down the collected 1000 kilogram of garbage, as it is a gigantic amount for  25 men.

We will be collecting and carrying the garbage in parts. We will go to the camp one and two for acclimatisation. During this period, the team will be returning to the base at least thrice,

he explained.  

During these visits, we will collect the non-biodegradable garbage from these camps. This garbage will be transported back during the returning journey after the summit, he further added.

BSF Mt. Everest expedition training

BSF team members during the training period

Thereafter, with the help of supporting staff and service providers, the team will carry it to the base camp.  The garbage will be transported to Nepal through yaks for a proper disposal.

When asked as to what does it mean for him to lead a team and scale the highest mountain in the world, he replied,

The best view comes after the hardest climb and taking no risk is the biggest risk of life.

I am fortunate enough to be the second leader alongside Padma Shri Love Raj Singh Dharamshaktu. He has a vast experience in mountaineering, and it is my sheer pleasure that I am chosen for the responsibility,

he added.  

It is a big responsibility because above 8000 meters, there starts the death zone – the term usually used by climbers.

When asked whether he was feeling any nervousness, he replied,

We are ready to take on the challenge as we have rigorously practised for the mission. But, I once again reiterate that we are nothing in front of the mountains and nature. It is our endeavour and we will succeed in it, I believe. I take challenges as they come. We are here and we are geared up.

 

About Avinash Negi

Avinash Negi Kinnaur

Born in the mountains of Kinnaur district, he has a rich history of adventure sports. His father, Mr K.C. Negi, is a retired IIS officer, who has served with the Govt of India.

Avinash received his higher education from the Punjab University.

 He cleared the Union Public Service Commission CPF-2007 Examination in 2008 and joined the Forces.  He underwent 14 months of training at the BSF Academy.

Currently, he is about to complete nine years of serving in the BSF

When asked whether he always wanted to join forces, Avinash replied,

Yes, I always had a liking for the armed forces and uniform. I am happy to be part of it.

Besides undergoing routine courses of the BSF, he has tried his luck in the field of adventure sports too.

I started my adventure career with my basic and advance mountaineering courses, which I took at the Atal Bihari Vajpayee Institute of Mountaineering and Allied Sports (ABVIMAS), Manali.

During the basic and advance courses, I was exposed to heights. I climbed to the height of 15500 feet in basic training and upto 17,900 feet in Pir Panjal Ranges of Manali,

he added.

Besides climbing some routine unnamed peaks, he has successfully attempted the following peaks:

  • Mt Friendship Manali, HP, (17,900 feet)
  • Mt Rudurgera, UK ( 20,000 feet).
  • Mt Gangotri Group of peaks, UK (21,700 feet)
  • Jogin 1 and 3 Expedition UK (215k -20100 feet) as the Deputy Leader alongside Lovraj Singh Dhramsaktu- his mentor

That is not all about him.  He is also a passionate paraglider and has taken several courses at Bir Billing in Kangra.  He is a certified pilot for solo paragliding, for which he has completed all three levels – P1, P2, and P3 courses at Gurukul paragliding school in Bir Billing.

There, Mr. Gurpreet Dhinsa, the Ace paragliding pilot of India, remained his mentor.

He did not stop here and underwent advance courses like thermalling and cross-country paragliding courses that added to his flying hours and let him fly next to clouds.

He is also a qualified skier. He has taken the basic and intermediate courses at the ITBP, Auli and advanced courses at the Garhwal Mandal Vikas Nigam, Uttrakhand, with excellent grades.

You must go on to adventures to find out where you truly belong,

he replied when asked if he would call himself a passionate mountaineer.

I am born and brought up in mountains like any other Himachali, especially the upper regions. The mountain always fascinates me and brings out the best in me, 

he said.

The best place to find your self is mountains. They teach you discipline and lessons that you never learn in classrooms. The first one is that the friends we make in mountains are for the lifetime because the people who stand by your side selflessly in the times of adversity are the ones whom you can bank upon blindly, Avinash said.

Avinash during the training period

He holds an opinion that the adventures open up one’s perspective towards life. People who are into mountaineering and adventure sports see life differently.

They are more docile, trustworthy, disciplined, punctual, lively, and helpful because mountains teach and inculcate these qualities in them, he said. 

Nature is supreme and we humans are just a nought in front of it.  Therefore, any mountain we scale should be done by seeking the permission of the mountain itself, he believes.

Himachali to scale mt everest

He always liked the saying “mountains are calling and I must go”.  The life depends on nature; therefore, only being disciplined and obedient will help us carry forward our mission successfully.

The mountains also teach us the reality of life. The days we spent on mountains are with limited things, be it edibles or limited space to sleep.

The two men tent and some warm water offered by someone becomes luxury when you are down.  A small space of just 24 square feet inside the tent looks far bigger than any king size bed. There we learn the value of things like food and water, which help us understand how little the requirements of a human being are.

Leisure moments during paragliding session

He believes there is a child in all of us and we should let that child live within us, otherwise, we are nothing more than machines.

Adventure helps add on to one’s decision-making ability, which is why all the corporates are also making it compulsory for their employees to undertake adventure activities once in a year. Most of the schools have also included adventure activities in their routine curriculum, he said.

I recommend all go outdoors. Being outdoor does not necessarily mean climbing a mountain or flying in thermal. Even a little exposure may help us realise what we actually are and what we actually want in life,

he said.

When he is off duty or on leave, then there is nothing better than a sunny evening, light music, and a broad view ahead.  He loves long drives and makes it a point to carry his iPods with him.   

He is not unaware of the dangers and risks involved in adventure activities. His advice is that adventure and accidents are closely associated. So it should only be undertaken under the supervision of a trained person until one becomes capable enough to do it on his own. All these activities look sounds adventures and charming but they involve a lot of risks too. Therefore, surveillance on a learner’s activities by an expert is a must.

Madan has studied English Literature and Journalism from HP University and lives in Shimla. He is an amateur photographer and has been writing on topics ranging from environmental, socio-economic, development programs, education, eco-tourism, eco-friendly lifestyle and to green technologies for over 9 years now. He has an inclination for all things green, wonderful and loves to live in solitude. When not writing, he can be seen wandering, trying to capture the world around him in his DSLR lens.

HW Community

The Story of Himachal’s ‘Friendly Leopard’ from the Viral Videos

Published

on

Viral Himachal Leopard Cub Video

Kullu-Several videos of the ‘leopard incident’ in Tirthan Valley, Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh, are going viral in India and would soon spread to international media. Anyone who is watching these videos is wondering as to how a wild predator who avoids humans, habitats, roads etc. and is a shy feline happened to be playing with people amid a huge gathering of people around him, traffic jam, and a lot of noise. It’s just like a fantasy to see a wild animal having such close, friendly contact with humans despite not being familiar with humans. Not only it was dangerous for the animal itself but also the ignorant people chasing him with mobile cams in their hands. That’s what we could infer from the response given by forest officials after watching the behavior of the people in these video clips. Himachal Watcher has also compiled several video clips of the incident.

A lot of our curious readers had been writing regarding the incident, so we talked to people who actually have knowledge regarding wildlife and animal behaviour in order to find a possible explanation for this rare leopard-man contact. It turned out, opposite to the fun people were having with this animal, it was a sensitive matter for the wildlife officials. 

We talked to the Divisional Forest Officer (DFO), Banjar, Praveen Thakur and HPFS, Sachin Sharma, who is currently posted as DFO, Great Himalayan National Park (GHNP).  Where did it come from? How did it become so friendly with humans? What happened to the cub later? These are some of the questions we posed to the DFO, Banjar, Praveen Thakur.

What you already know is that a leopard came out of the wild onto the road near Sarchi – Nagladi bridge in Tirthan valley on January 14. This belt comes under the Great Himalayan National Park. People stopped their vehicles and came out to record videos. The leopard was seen playfully grabbing different people. A traffic jam and a huge gathering of people, mostly locals, were seen in the videos. It was something that people had never seen, at least in this part of the world. 

The DFO, GHNP, also admitted that this is highly uncommon to see such ferocious wild predator getting so friendly within a few hours after contact with humans. But in this case, it was just a cub, aged about seven to eight months. 

“I haven’t seen or heard of such an incident where a wild leopard became so friendly with humans that he started to play with them. These animals are generally shy and smartest in the feline families. They avoid humans and their habitats,” he said.

When asked whether a cub of its age, considering strength and growth of nails and teeth, was capable of inflicting harm or not, he said that on sensing a threat it can. He condemned the behaviour of the people as it was not only dangerous for them but also the animal.

“Amid such a chaotic environment, the behaviour of any wild animal would be unpredictable. If not intentionally, the cub could have inflicted minor injuries to someone while playing. In that case, the reaction of people could have been hostile and things could have gone wrong,” he said.

In his opinion, this rare instance can’t be termed as a result of man-animal conflict. No other instances where these animals attacked or caused harm to humans in this region have been reported, he said.

The DFO, Banjar, Praveen Thakur said he was also surprised but also gave an explanation.

“It was an eight- to-nine-month-old cub, who got separated from its mother. The mother with its cubs lives in a nearby forest in a territory of four to five square kilometers. There was an incident of fire in the area and the cub, most probably, got separated from the mother due to it,” the DFO told Himachal Watcher.

Regarding the friendly behaviour of this cub, he said,

“Several videos are going viral on social media where the cub was looking comfortable and friendly with humans amid a crowd. Adult leopards show behavioural changes before becoming mature animals. They mostly avoid humans. But it was not an adult leopard, but just an 8 to-9-month-old cub,” he said.

“However, the cub did not get friendlier at the starting and was avoiding vehicles. As per my knowledge, for the first few hours, the cub was seen roaming around in a distress and avoiding humans and vehicles. (Watch Video). Initially, a couple of vehicles stopped to see the cub. As it was just a cub unable to hunt and survive at its own, it got friendlier after sensing that humans were not harming and, thus, were no threat. Cubs can get friendly on sensing no threat. Similarly, cubs and young offspring of several other animals can get friendlier.”

If watched video clips carefully, the cub was curious and trying to explore this new environment. But at the same time it was distressed as it had gotten separated from its mother and was in a environment not natural for it.

Citing a previous case, the DFO said,

“Not long time ago, we had rescued a bear cub. He had also become friendly within no time.”

“In the present case, we have identified the family. Mother lives in the forest not far from our Rest House. The area falls under the Great Himalayan National Park and is not far from the road. The family is not entirely unfamiliar with traffic and human movement,” he told HW.

In the current incident, he said that it’s a case of separation of the cub from mother.

A forest fire was reported in the territory of this family, and the mother or the cub got stuck somewhere due to it, resulting in a separation.”

He confirmed hearing calls from its mother. Mother would make a particular sound as a form of a call when trying to find its cubs, he explained.

He said that the department received the information regarding the presence of this cub among humans a little late. On receiving information, a rescue team was dispatched, which reached the spot within half-an-hour.

The team caught the cub with a net without much difficulty, he said. As it was healthy and had no injury or disease, it was released into its natural habitat as guidelines say that in such a case the animal should be released to its natural habitat as soon as possible to reduce distress.

He also said that teams are continuously monitoring the movement of the cub to ensure that it reunites with its mother and do not venture into human habitats or comes near the road again.

The mother and the cub are only a couple of kms distance apart. The cub would also make calls, which would help the mother find it, he said.

He rejected speculations of this cub being raised as a pet.

“His mother would have not been making calls if the cub was raised as a pet. These calls imply that the cub got separated very recently,” he said.

“After consulting wildlife experts, we have decided that in case the cub is seen venturing into human habitats or places having human presence and displaying same friendly behaviour again, then it would have to be captured and sent to the rescue centre in Gopalpur in Kangra district,” he said.

If it would grow up while remaining in friendly contact with humans, it might not get capable of attaining hunting skills to survive at its own in the wild. Moreover, these animals could inflict grieve injuries unintentionally while playing.

However, we are certain that the mother would soon find the cub. We will keep monitoring it until the mother stops making distress calls, he said.

On being asked whether this cub was capable of hurting or injuring a human, the DFO said that cubs of this age lack hunting skills, and it’s mostly after one year of age that the mother starts training them.

The DFO, however, expressed more concern over the behaviour of the people than that of the animal.

Most of these people were locals and they are often made aware about dos and don’t on an encounter with a wild animal.

“As soon as I came across the videos, I contacted a few people who were present on the spot including the Pradhan of the area and told him to ask people to stay away from the cub and to not chase him for photos and videos. I had even spoken to the local police to help manage the situation as people were not even listening to our Rangers,” he told HW.

“It was a complete nuisance that the people were creating by causing a traffic jam, chasing the cub, and trying to get close to it. We are trying to identify some people visible in the video deliberately going near the cub,” he added while informing that there are provisions of three to six months of imprisonment for those creating nuisance for or teasing wild animals, especially those protected. Leopards are protected under Schedule 1 of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act.

He urged the people to avoid wild animals if they happen to encounter them. Stay away from them, do not gather around and obstruct their path. Left alone, on sensing no threat, these animals eventually find their course and go back to their natural habitat, he said. In the current case, the situation would have led to chaos if it was a mature leopard, he said.

Even if you want to watch the animal then, at least, maintain a safe distance or remain in the vehicle, he added.

When asked whether this instance can be related to man-animal conflict and is a matter of concern or not, the DFO said,

“This can’t be termed as a matter related to man-animal conflict and isn’t a matter of concern as long as animals do not enter human habitats and kill livestock or attack humans. Moreover, such judgement can’t be made based on a single instance.”

Continue Reading

HW Community

Farmers Welcome SC Order to Stay Implementation of Farm Laws But Suspicious About Formation of Committee

Published

on

By

stay on farm laws

New Delhi: The Supreme Court on Tuesday stayed the implementation of three contentious farm laws passed by the Centre Government, which has led to huge protest from hundreds of farmer groups. The stay implies that the Centre Government can’t take any executive actions based on these laws till further order. 

“The implementation of the three farm laws (1) Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act, 2020; (2) Essential Commodities (Amendment) Act, 2020; and (3) Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Act, 2020, shall stand stayed until further orders,”

said the order passed by a panel headed by the Chief Justice of India (CJI) Sharad A Bobde on Tuesday.

Further, the MSP system would continue as it was before the enactment of the laws.

“As a consequence, the Minimum Support Price System in existence before the enactment of the Farm Laws shall be maintained until further orders. In addition, the farmers’ land holdings shall be protected, i.e., no farmer shall be dispossessed or deprived of his title as a result of any action taken under the Farm Laws,”

the order said.

With this order, the SC hoped to end the ongoing impasse over the contentious farm laws.

The farmers who have been protesting for over the last 45 days, welcomed the SC’s order.

However, at the same time, the Apex Court ordered the formation of a committee to listen to both sides and make recommendations to the court. The committee, which would comprise of Agriculture economist Ashok Gulati, Bhupinder Singh Mann, Dr Prmod Kumar Joshi, former director of National Academy of Agricultural Research Management), and Anil Ghanwat from Shetkari Sangathan, was asked to submit its report in the court within two months.

The CJI, in its order, speaking about the purpose of this “extraordinary” order, said,

“While we may not stifle a peaceful protest, we think that this extraordinary order of stay of implementation of the farm laws will be perceived as an achievement of the purpose of such protest at least for the present and will encourage the farmers’ bodies to convince their members to get back to their livelihood, both in order to protect their own lives and health and in order to protect the lives and properties of others.”

Though a stay on the implementation of laws was welcomed by protesting farmers, several unions said that they would not accept this committee and the protest will continue. They said the Government is trying to form this committee through the Supreme Court. This committee, they said, included persons who have already been justifying the farm laws. They said the purpose of this committee is nothing more than creating a diversion. The protest would be armed up and only a repeal of laws would be accepted, the unions said. 

At the same time, the SC was undeterred with these statements and said there is nothing that can stop it from forming a committee. The SC asked the farmers to cooperate with the committee.

On the other hand, the Government was more concerned about that other political parties would think of the stay as a “political victory”.

Further, the Government has also expressed apprehension about security breach due to the tractor rally planned by protesting farmers on the Republic Day.

K.K. Venugopal, Attorney General, told the court that there are reports that the farmers’ bodies may take out a tractor rally on January 26, 2021, disrupting the Republic Day Parade and celebrations However, the same was stoutly denied by Dushyant Dave, learned senior counsel appearing for a few of the farmers’ bodies on the ground that at least one member of the family of each of the farmers from Punjab is in the Army and that they would not disrupt the Republic Day celebrations.

The Court, in its order, said that several rounds of talked between farmers and the Government have failed and there was no solution in sight.

“The situation on ground is: (i) that senior citizens, women and children are at site, exposing themselves to serious health hazards posed by cold and covid; (ii) that a few deaths have taken place, though not out of any violence, but either out of illness or by way of suicide,”

the order said.

The court also lauded the farmers for carrying on the agitation peacefully without any unwanted incident.

Further, the Court orders also mentioned separate petitions filed by individuals/residents of the NCR complaining of blockade of roads/highways leading to Delhi and terming it an infringement of the fundamental rights of other citizens to move freely and to carry out trade and business.

Stay on 3 Farm Laws and Formation of Committee: Read Full Order of Supreme Court

Continue Reading

HW Community

Inflation, Increased Cost of Food Items, Ration, Crumbling Health Infrastructure, and 100 Gram Sugar: Govt’s Diwali Gift to People

Published

on

hp govt's gift on diwali 2020

Shimla-The Himachal Pradesh Government has collected over Rs. 86 crores in the name of the COVID-19 relief fund, but only Rs 25 crore was spent. It was stated by Sanjay Chauhan, former Mayor of Shimla and a senior CPI (M) leader. It’s a shocker considering negligible relief measures and the state of health infrastructure crumbling amid a pandemic. The unpreparedness of the state government to deal with community spread of coronavirus is coming to light as its COVID-19 hospitals have begun to run out of beds in isolation wards. Two major medical facilities -Indira Gandhi Medical College & Hospital and DDU Hospital in Shimla- are packed to their full capacity. 

What’s not shocking is that Chief Minister did hail the Prime Minister, exactly as he was told, claiming that the nation is out of COVID-19 crisis. It suggests that the Chief Minister is little aware of the surge in cases and over 400 COVID-19 deaths, of which 93 were reported during the last 12 days of November month. Yesterday, the state has reported over 700 cases with six deaths, which is alarming.

“Prime Minister Narendra Modi deserves all praise for his dynamic leadership as he is successfully steering the Country amid all troubles and difficulties. He has successfully brought the Nation out of Covid-19 crisis,” 

said Chief Minister Jai Ram Thakur, while addressing a public meeting at Sihunta under Bhatiyat Assembly Constituency on Wednesday. 

Talking about the real situation and relief measures, the state Government became a laughingstock and was being trolled on social media after it announced 100 gram sugar and 500-gram rice per person to all ration cardholders as a Diwali gift. If that was not enough, according to a media report, this quota has still not reached the depots. There is a possibility that it would reach the cardholders only after Diwali.

The reason behind this backlash is not only that 100-gram sugar is too trivial to be called a gift or relief, especially amid a pandemic when common people, especially those falling in middle and lower-income groups, are faced with unemployment and economic crisis.

While the people were hoping for relief from their elected government, inflation was on the rise. Currently, prices of food items including vegetables and other essential commodities have also witnessed a huge increase. Further, cut in subsidy on electricity, hike in bus fare, increase in property tax, rise in diesel and petrol prices etc. have put additional burden on the commoners. 

Then there were other issues like relaxation in garbage collection fee for the period of lockdown. Sadly, the public did not get any relief even in garbage bills despite staging protests. 

Meanwhile, Ministers made news for spending tax money on buying luxury vehicles and VIP numbers. 

Oppositions, Congress and CPI (M) have also targeted the government over its failure to provide any considerable relief to the people when it’s most needed. As per oppositions, the current government has no control over the market or inflation.

Chauhan also raised the issue of thousands of vacant posts of doctors, para-medical staff, nurses etc. at medical facilities across the state. He said that of the total 1000 posts of lab technicians, 700 were still vacant. He said that the government did not prepare for a community spread despite having a time of eight months during the lockdowns. It was due to this lackadaisical attitude of the government that currently IGMC and DDU hospitals have run out of space in isolation wards, he said.

He also said that, in an all-party meeting convened on March 21, CPI(M) had given the government 12 recommendations to effectively deal with the situation. The party had suggested that thousands of vacant posts should be filled at the earliest, all government buildings construction of which were completed should be prepared to accommodate COVID-19 patients. Similarly, at least four blocks of the under-construction building of IGMC should also be equipped with facilities to accommodate patients, the party had suggested. 

On November 8, 2020, the state unit of Mahila Congress staged a protest over a huge increase in prices of food items. They wore garlands of potatoes and onions and marched from the party headquarter to the Office of Deputy Commissioner, Shimla. Women alleged that the people have received no relief despite such a huge crisis. Instead, the current government is encouraging hoarding of essentials.

The opposition also said that the government has increased the rate of cereals provided through the public distribution system. This increase is Rs 5 for cereals and Rs. 9 for mustard oil. Vegetable prices have gone beyond Rs 50 during the festival season. It also said that the registration fees of vehicles have also been increased.

Sanjay Chauhan is of the view that to provide relief, the government should deposit at least Rs 7500 in the accounts of consumers and provide them with 10 kg ration per person for free.

He also said that recently the government has hiked the charges for electricity and installation of meters. The government has now withdrawn its notification restricting schools to charge only tuition fee and allowed them to charge full fees, including those pending for the period of lockdown, he said. This decision has come as a huge financial burden for parents and is causing mental harassment. 

The policies of the current government are only benefiting corporates, while other sections like labourers/daily wagers, small scale industries and businesses, shopkeepers, farmers are faced with financial crisis and unemployment due to lockdowns imposed in view of corona pandemic, Chauhan said. 

Continue Reading

Trending