Political discourse is at it’s lowest point in the country, at least in my lifetime. The partisanship bias is unbelievable and people continue to support their side no matter what the evidence, there is no remorse even when they’re proved to have been spreading fake news. This is something that everyone — the parties and the voters/supporters are to be blamed for.
BJP has done a great job at spreading some specific messages with incredibly effective propaganda, and these messages are the primary reason that I can’t support the party anymore. But before we get into any of that, I’d like everyone to understand that no party is totally bad, and no party is totally good. All governments have done some good and messed up on some fronts. This government is no different.
1. Road construction is faster than it was earlier. There has been a change in the methodology of counting road length, but even factoring that in it seems to be faster.
2. Electricity connection increased
All villages electrified and people getting electricity for more hours. (Congress did electrify over 5 lakh villages and Modi ji finished the job by connecting the last 18k so, you can weigh the achievement as you like. Similarly, the number of hours people get electricity has increased ever since independence, but it might be a larger increase during BJP).
3. Upper-level corruption is reduced
No huge cases at the ministerial level as of now (but the same was true of UPA I :/ ). Lower level seems to be about the same with increased amounts, no one seems to be able to control the thanedar, patwari et al.
4. The Swachh Bharat Mission is a definite success
More toilets built than before and Swachhta is something embedded in people’s minds now.
5. UJJWALA Yojana is a great initiative
How many people buy the second cylinder remains to be seen. The first one and a stove were free, but now people need to pay for it. The cost of cylinders has almost doubled since the government took over and now one costs more than Rs. 800.
6. Connectivity for the North East has undoubtedly increased
More trains, roads, flights and most importantly — the region is now discussed in the mainstream news channels.
7. Law and order is reportedly better than it was under regional parties.
Feel free to add achievements you can think of in the comments below, also achievements necessarily have caveats, failures are absolute!
It takes decades and centuries to build systems and nations, the biggest failure I see in BJP is that it has destroyed some great things on very flimsy grounds.
It basically legalizes corruption and allows corporate & foreign powers to just buy our political parties. The bonds are anonymous so if a corporate says I’ll give you an electoral bond of 1,000 crores if you pass this specific policy, there will be no prosecution. There just is no way to establish quid pro quo with an anonymous instrument. This also explains how corruption is reduced at the Ministerial level — it isn’t per file/order, it is now like the US — at the policy level.
Planning Commission Reports
This used to be a major source for data. They audited government schemes and stated how things are going. With that gone, there just is no choice but to believe whatever data the government gives you (CAG audits come out after a long time!). NITI Aayog doesn’t have this mandate and is basically a think tank and PR agency. Plan/Non-Plan distinction could be removed without removing this!
Misuse of CBI and ED
It is being used for political purposes as far as I can see, but even if it isn’t the fear that these institutions will be unleashed on them if they speak up against anything Modi/Shah related is real. This is enough to kill dissent, an integral component of democracy.
Failure to investigate Kalikho Pul’s suicide note, Judge Loya’s death, Sohrabuddin murder, the defense of an MLA accused of Rape who’s relative is accused of killing the girl’s father and FIR wasn’t registered for over a year..!
It failed, but worse is BJP’s inability to accept that it failed. All propaganda of it cutting terror funding, reducing cash, eliminating corruption is just absurd. It also killed off businesses.
Implemented in a hurry and harmed business. Complicated structure, multiple rates on different items, complex filing… Hopefully, it’ll stabilize in time, but it did cause harm. Failure to acknowledge that from BJP is extremely arrogant.
The messed up foreign policy with pure grandstanding
China has a port in Sri Lanka, huge interests in Bangladesh and Pakistan — we’re surrounded, the failure in Maldives (Indian workers not getting visas anymore because of India’s foreign policy debacle) while Modi Ji goes out to foreign countries and keeps saying Indians had no respect in the world before 2014 and now they’re supremely respected (This is nonsense. Indian respect in foreign countries was a direct result of our growing economy and IT sector, it hasn’t improved an ounce because of Modi. Might even have declined due to beef based lynchings, threats to journalists etc.)
Failure of schemes and failure to acknowledge/course correct
Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana, Make In India, Skill Development, Fasal Bima (look at reimbursements — the government is lining the pockets of insurance companies). Failure to acknowledge unemployment and farmers crisis — calling every real issue an opposition stunt.
The high prices of Petrol and Diesel
Modi Ji and all BJP ministers + supporters criticized Congress for it heavily and now all of them justify the high prices even though crude is cheaper than it was then! Just unacceptable.
Failure to engage with the most important basic issues
Education and Healthcare. There is just nothing on education which is the nation’s biggest failure. Quality of government schools has deteriorated over the decades (ASER reports) and no action. They did nothing on Healthcare for 4 years, then Ayushman Bharat was announced — that scheme scares me more than nothing being done. Insurance schemes have a terrible track record and this is going the US route, which is a terrible destination for healthcare (watch Sicko by Michael Moore)!
You can add some and subtract some based on personal understanding of the issue, but this is my assessment. The Electoral Bonds thing is huge and hopefully, the SC will strike it down! Every government has some failures and some bad decisions though, the bigger issue I have is more on morals than anything else.
The real negative of this government is how it has affected the national discourse with a well-considered strategy. This isn’t a failure, it’s the plan.
It has discredited the media, so now every criticism is brushed off as a journalist who didn’t get paid by BJP or is on the payrolls of Congress. I know several journalists for whom the allegation can’t be true, but more importantly, no one ever addresses the accusation or complaint — they just attack the person raising the issue and ignore the issue itself.
It has peddled a narrative that nothing happened in India in 70 years.
This is patently false and the mentality is harmful to the nation. This government spent over Rs. 4,000 crore of our taxpayer money on advertisements and now that will become the trend. Do small works and huge branding. He isn’t the first one to build roads — some of the best roads I’ve traveled on were pet projects of Mayawati and Akhilesh Yadav. India became an IT powerhouse from the 90s. It is easy to measure past performance and berate past leaders based on the circumstances of today, just one example of that:
Why did Congress not build toilets in 70 years?
They couldn’t even do something so basic. This argument sounds logical and I believed it too, until I started reading India’s history. When we gained independence in 1947 we were an extremely poor country, we didn’t have the resources for even basic infrastructure and no capital. To counteract this PM Nehru went down the socialist path and created PSU’s. We had no capacity to build steel, so with the help of Russians the Heavy Engineering Corporation (HEC), Ranchi was set up that made machines to make steel in India — without this we would have no steel, and consequently no infrastructure.
That was the agenda — basic industries and infra. We had frequent droughts (aakaal), every 2–3 years and a large number of people starved to death. The priority was to feed the people, toilets were a luxury no one cared for. The Green Revolution happened and the food shortages disappeared by the 1990s — now we have a surplus problem. The toilet situation is exactly like people asking 25 years from now why Modi couldn’t make all houses in India air conditioned. That seems like a luxury today, toilets were also a luxury at some point of time. Maybe things could have happened sooner, maybe 10–15 years ago, but nothing happened in 70 years is a horrible lie to peddle.
3. The spread and reliance on Fake News
There is some anti-BJP fake news too, but the pro-BJP and anti-opposition fake news outstrips that by miles in number and in reach. Some of it is supporters, but a lot of it comes from the party. It is often hateful and polarizing, which makes it even worse. The online news portals backed by this government are damaging society more than we know.
4. Hindu Khatre Mein Hain
They’ve ingrained it into the minds of people that Hindus and Hinduism are in danger, and that Modi is the only option to save ourselves. In reality Hindus have been living the same lives much before this government and nothing has changed except people’s mindset. Were we Hindus in danger in 2007? At least I didn’t hear about it everyday and I see no improvement in the condition of Hindus, just more fear mongering and hatred.
5. Speak against the government and you’re anti-National and more recently, anti-Hindu
Legitimate criticism of the government is shut up with this labeling. Prove your nationalism, sing Vande Mataram everywhere (even though BJP leaders don’t know the words themselves, they’ll force you to sing it!). I’m a proud nationalist and my nationalism won’t allow me to let anyone force me to showcase it! I will sing the national anthem and national song with pride when the occasion calls for it, or when I feel like it, but I won’t let anyone force me to sing it based on their whims!
6. Running news channels that are owned by BJP leaders who’s sole job is to debate Hindu-Muslim, National-Antinational, India-Pakistan and derail the public discourse from issues and logic into polarizing emotions. You all know exactly which ones, and you all even know the debaters who’re being rewarded for spewing the vilest propaganda.
7. The polarization
The message of development is gone. BJP’s strategy for the next election is polarization and inciting pseudo-nationalism. Modi ji has basically said it himself in speeches — Jinnah; Nehru; Congress leaders didn’t meet Bhagat Singh in jail (fake news from the PM himself!); INC leaders met leaders in Pakistan to defeat Modi in Gujarat; Yogi ji’s speech on how Maharana Pratap was greater than Akbar; JNU students are anti-national they’ll #TukdeTukdeChurChur India — this is all propaganda constructed for a very specific purpose — polarize and win elections — it isn’t the stuff I want to be hearing from my leaders and I refuse to follow anyone who is willing to let the nation burn in riots for political gain.
These are just some of the instances of how BJP is pushing the national discourse in a dark corner. This isn’t something I signed up for and it totally isn’t something I can support. That is why I am resigning from BJP.
PS: I supported BJP since 2013 because Narendra Modi Ji seemed like a ray of hope for India and I believed in his message of development — that message and the hope are now both gone. The negatives of this Narendra Modi and Amit Shah government now outweigh the positives for me, but that is a decision that every voter needs to make individually. Just know that history and reality are complicated. Buying into simplistic propaganda and espousing cult-like unquestioning faith are the worst thing you can do — it is against the interests of democracy and of this nation.
You all have your own decisions to make as the elections approach. Best of luck with that. My only hope is that we can all live and work harmoniously together — and contribute towards making a better, stronger, poverty-free and developed India, no matter what party or ideology we support. Always remember that there are good people on both sides, the voter needs to support them and they need to support each other even when they are in different parties.
By Shivam Shankar Singh – The author is a former-data analytics for the BJP’s poll campaigns.
Disclaimer: The blog has been re-published with permission of the author and without much editing. The opinion expressed in it does not necessarily reflect Himachal Watcher’s point of view.
Kinnaur-Ngari Corridor: An Argument for The Revival of The Western Himalayan Silk Route
With the inauguration of the Kartarpur Corridor a new sense of hope within the people of especially the border areas of India has come up and now many regions in the country would hope to adopt such a model and one such region which may initiate a similar demand in the future could be Himachal Pradesh’s Kinnaur district which shares its borders with the Ngari prefecture of the Tibet Autonomous Region.
Why a Corridor
Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh on the Indo-China border, is one of those places where, in this 21st century, people are still struggling to get minimal health care, linkage to roads, primary education facilities and employment for its mostly tribal youth. Meanwhile, the provincial government is on a high after the success of its recently concluded Rising Himachal Global Investors Meet but may believe that the event had nothing in it for districts like Kinnaur.
As investment in sectors like Agri-Business, Health Care and Education have been opened but none include opportunities for Kinnaur or for that matter Lahaul Spiti. Say in case of the investible projects in Health Care where out of a list of 50 identified sub-centres not even one such centre of Kinnaur and Lahaul Spiti district has been included. In the education and skill development sector also the story is the same. Out of all the investible projects listed not even one is for the far-flung districts.
Which puts forth a perception in the minds of many that a new policy alternative needs to be put in place to tackle the issues of these isolated districts and establishment of a Visa-free Kinnaur-Ngari Corridor seems to be a step in this direction which will link India’s Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh to the bordering Ngari Prefecture of the Tibet Autonomous Region (China).
Western Himalayan Silk Route
India was the ﬁrst non-communist country to recognize China but relations between the two countries have undergone dramatic changes over the past seven decades, ranging from a great period in the 1950s to a period of enormous downs in the 1960s and 1970s, to a fresh start from the mid-1980s. The neoliberal era from the 1990s has offered enormous opportunities to New Delhi and Beijing to move in the direction of an efficient and effective relationship in the long-term interest of peace and stability in Asia. Establishment of this corridor could be the next step in this direction and would also lead to reviving of the centuries-old Western Himalayan Silk Route which got linked by the Hindustan – Tibet road in 1850 by the orders of Lord Dalhousie.
During that time traders from the erstwhile Bushahr state used to cross the Shipki La pass and trade with people of Western Tibet mostly belonging to the Ngari prefecture. Also, regular fairs were held during summertime in Kinnaur and Ngari areas which attracted thousands of traders from both sides to barter trade with each other. Though after the 1962 Sino-Indian War this route was closed but with the passage of time the two countries with huge human and material resources realized that they were facing common challenges of eradicating poverty and thus they began the process of reconnecting with each other with the signing of a protocol on economic cooperation, they granted each other MFN status and finally India–China relations entered a new phase which thus paved the way for the 1993 official opening of trade through the Shipki La pass but only border trade got the nod and mostly the adjoining packs of villages on both sides are allowed to trade since then.
In 2015, however, the cross border trade through that route touched a new record with a turnover of close to Rs 9.72 Crore, the highest ever since it resumed in 1993 but after the 2017 Dokhlam standoff in Sikkim it considerably declined. In 2018, it slowly revived by registering a turnover of 2.82 Crores. The main exports from India which are included in the tax-free list are agriculture implements, blankets, copper products, clothes, cycles, coffee, barley, rice, flour, dry and fresh vegetables, tobacco, spices, stationery, liquor, cigarettes, local herbal medicines, religious products like prayer wheels etc. On the flip side, imports from China include goat skin, sheep skin, wool, yak hair, goats, sheep’s, horses, shoes, carpets etc.
Need of a Corridor
If trade between nearby villages, that too through a rigid permit system which only accommodates limited people, could generate such a turnover, a proper Visa Free corridor can do far better.
The lifestyles, culture and languages of the two regions on both sides are also very similar linked to the historic movement of nomadic Kinnauri, Lahuli and Tibetian tribes in the region most people of those tribes living in the border belt also have relatives across the border. Particularly Tibetan speaking societies of Upper Kinnaur shares a lot of common ground concerning historical, geographical and cultural terms with Purang in the Western Tibetan region and they will gain a lot from this move both economically and socially.
These revived ties would promote bilateral tourism as the sector has huge scope in the region. Also, this corridor would hold a lot of religious importance as the Mount Kailash and Lake Man Sarovar are part of Ngari and thus many devotees especially belonging to the Himachali Shaivism sect would support this move. Also, many Buddhists from TAR and China would be interested in visiting the Key Monastery of Spiti and numerous monasteries of Kinnaur.
Such access also facilitates the interaction of academicians and students generating and developing ideas that benefit both sides, besides regional cooperation on key infrastructural and farming related issues. Also, in the long run, the two regions can have common schools were children from nearby border villages can study together. Common airports, hospitals, agriculture centres and sports complexes can also be established in those areas with the collaboration of both governments. Possibly in the future, the corridor could be stretched towards other parts of Himachal and Ladakh on the Indian side as well as parts of the Tibetan Autonomous Region.
Local communities in especially Upper Kinnaur have many a time raised this issue to open borders and similar voices were also been heard from the Ngari side but the governments on both sides have kept silent.
Keeping in view, the legal and political aspects of international affairs, it will be mutually beneﬁcial for both India and China to strengthen the relationship through a constructivist approach. The two must balance national interest and the global economic concerns The 21st meeting of the Special Representatives of China and India on the boundary question in 2018 which was held in Chengdu, was a step in this direction. It had in-depth discussions on border trust-building and cooperation, and the proposed corridor can be a step in that direction which could bring prosperity back in the Western Himalayas and can be the beginning of a new chapter in India – China ties.
But the key not only rests in the hands of Beijing and New Delhi but also in the hands of Dharamshala where Himachal’s Investor Summit took place as another player in the whole scenario. The Tibetan government in exile has its headquarters situated in the town. The Tibet issue has been one of the major reasons for such Indian–Chinese relations. Although India has already reconciled itself to the fact that Tibet can never be a separate entity from China, but the Indian government has also not pushed hard to strike a peace deal between Tibet and China. While on the flip side, China has too been vary of the economic growth of India and has tried to sideline it on many counts.
Coming to the bottom line the attitude of these policy makers on both sides plus a concrete stand of the Tibetan government in exile is what will decide the future course of regions like Kinnaur and Nagari which are currently trapped in Western Himalayan border games.
Author: Vishal Sharma
Vishal is currently pursuing LL.M. in Legal & Political Aspects in International Affairs from Cardiff University, Wales (UK). He founded the Limbic Movement centered around a social organizational sphere aiming to advance the Limbic ideological dimension in the fields of Law, Public Policy and Social Work.
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors. They do not purport to reflect the opinions or views of the Himachal Watcher or its members.
Indian Economic Slowdown: Path to Recovery May go Through Dusty Rural India
Shimla-After the release of economic growth figures for the April-June quarter of FY20 by Central Statistics Office last week, at least we have a consensus on one sobering fact: Indian economy is in the doldrums, and we no longer are the fastest growing economy in the world.
A sizable slowdown has been reported across most segments-manufacturing, farm, mining, construction, real estate, financial, professional services IT, auto, etc. The data on display is alarming considering the huge bearing these sectors have on employment. The slowdown of such enormous scale is likely to increase India’s unemployment rate in the coming months that stood at 6.1% in FY18- the highest in the last 45 years. For some time now, there has been a manifest lack of demand and investment sentiments in the market.
In the thick of all this, disconcerting is the lowest consumption growth in the last 18 quarters – remember the consumption growth was the major driver behind the rapid growth story of the Indian economy and it accounts for significant 55-58% of the GDP.
One of the major reasons for the decline in consumption growth is the shrinking rural wages, which is the result of the unacknowledged farm crisis going across the country for a few years now. As per the World Bank collection of development indicators report, the rural population in India was 66.46% of the total population in 2017. The constant decline in rural wages resulted in a substantial decline in disposable income, hence, the demand too weakened. The constant decline in food prices bedevilled agriculture income and subsequently lowering the spending and hurting the rural demand. In economic, high inflation hurts the end consumers, similarly, low inflation impacts the producers. The lower inflation rate impacted the farm producers tormenting rural India badly.
The favorable demographic profile (65% of the population in India is below the age of 35) of India, initially, acted as a stimulus for attracting investments. As the younger population of a nation aspire their own house, car, yearly holiday, white goods, electronic gadgets, etc. But, as India’s much-touted growth story has failed to generate enough jobs, sagging the aspirational spirits of the youth. Thus, resulting in the slackening of demand, in return, this affected the confidence and sentiments of the investors in the Indian market.
It has a cascading impact in an economy, as an investor invests in anticipation of demand and keeping in view the market sentiments; at present both these factors are lacking in the India economy.
Another reason for the economic slowdown is the decline in the saving rate from 34.6% to 30% over five years in India; the worst dip is in the household savings-the biggest source of Investment and accounts for 61% of the total savings- dropping to 16.3% from 23.6% over the same period. The 18% & 28% GST slabs, that covers 43 % and 19% of the good and services respectively also took a toll on the disposable income, weakened the demand and eating up the savings among the great Indian middle-class.
The credit household debt has also increased manifold in last decade. This has reduced the purchasing power and reduced saving of the household in India.
The credit growth over the years has remained weak- in spite of successive rate cuts by the RBI- owing to the problem of NPA plaguing the banks. The recent liquidity woes in the Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFC) – shadow banking – have also fuelled speculation, instability, and stress in the financial market. This mess in the financial sector has impacted the investments as reflected by the subdued CAPEX cycle also.
The gig economy (responsible for 96% of the employment in the country) is yet to recover from the double whammy of demonization and GST. A testimony to this is the high unemployment rate prevailing in India. Gig in India is too big to be ignored.
Besides this, weakening currency and decline in export only piled up the concerns in the economy, in spite of favorable crude oil prices and low inflation. The aftermaths of the trade war and global slowdown have also started to reflect on the Indian economy.
In India, the richest 10% owes 77.4% of the national wealth; the poorest 60% have 4.7% only. This represents the widening cleavage between the rich and the poor, the growing plutocracy is a concern for developing nations like India. As more and more wealth is concentrated in few hands, instability in the economy increases, making the macroeconomic parameters vulnerable. For such economies with rising plutocracy, a gloomy economic prognosis beacons.
The next few months will be critical for the Indian economy, as demand and investment sentiments need to be spiked up. The disposable income must be increased immediately by revamping at the multiple tax slabs under the present GST regime and replacing them with a simpler lower single tax slab. The technical issues with the input tax credit software should be addressed immediately. This will sort out the delay input credit and reduce its proceeding time too. We need a simpler GST rather than the labyrinth one.
A major part of Rs 1.76 lakh crores given by the RBI to the government can be used on the public expenditure, this will revive the infrastructure projects and boost disposable income and revive demand. This will also bolster the credit demand which has been facing a massive downturn.
For decades now, the Indian growth story was riding on factors like a demographic dividend, a huge market for consumption and a strong base of saving to stimulate investment. But, the time has proved that such a model can’t work for long only on these factors. All these factors are favorable for economic development but, it has to be buttressed with policies that produce high enough economic growth with sufficient jobs; cultivate a conducive investment climate and boost confidence in the system. At present, there is a perceptible lack of these elements.
In developing nations, an economic model driven by consumption growth can’t work for long, rather economic model should be driven by continuous investment.
In India, unfortunately, all the limelight is hogged by urban India, whereas rural India remains unnoticed. Few quarters of stress in the auto industry becomes front-page news; on the contrary years of farm stress does not get any mention. Although, the path to the economic recovery may go through dusty rural India and foster on the sweat, toil and hard work of the prosaic gig economy. Albeit, it may not make a beaming headline. Rural India, for one more time, will not mind; as it never did earlier.
Reaping the Digital Dividend for Improving the State Capacity
Shimla-To the developing nations, digitization offers a range of opportunities to build and strengthen its state capacity and solve the numerous problems that plague them. State Capacity of a nation is its ability to effectively design and implement public policies, so the objectives of such policies are achieved.
As per the Digital Adoption Index of McKinsey, Digital India report, India is digitizing second-fastest in the world- second only to Indonesia. Besides, telecom and internet penetration are improving at the rapid speed putting India on the cusp of digitization revolution.
Digitization, in the near future, will have far-reaching implications on the Indian society. It can help India to build upon its existing state capacity to tackle the issues of reducing poverty, improving healthcare facilities, removing corruption & illiteracy, finding energy solutions, better traffic management, offering affordable housing, waste management, reducing crime, bridging inequality and generating new avenues of employment for our youth.
Embracing digitalization improves efficiency immensely, as we have seen in the services and manufacturing sector worldwide. India’s own Direct Benefit Transfer scheme proved how digitalization prevents chronic corruption and massive subsidy leakages. In financial institutions, digital payments have improved flexibility, revamped financial inclusion and provided prevention against fraud. In e-commerce, digitalization has streamlined supply chains and logistics issues exceedingly.
In organizations-both government and private-digitalization has improved transparency by providing a single touch interface and has made officials more accountable by real-time basis monitoring of the work.
Also, Digitization not only offers data faster but, the data that was not at all available hitherto to the policymakers. Such data can help policymakers to frames better polices and target them even better hence, achieving the set objectives.
Digitalization will require, both government and organizations, to keep abreast with fast-paced technological developments. Moreover, a lot will depend on how the government deals with the mounting pressure of security challenges, cyber-attacks, data privacy, societal issues such as the Internet of things (IoT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). To tackle these issues new laws and regulation will have to be made. For Government, countering such complex and new issues successfully will require a whole new approach and a revamped decision-making process.
In India, the challenge remains whether we have equipped and skilled manpower to reap the dividend of digitalization boom. No doubt, digitalization comes with the potential to transform millions of lives but will require a workforce with adequate skills too. The existing workforce will also have to be retrained and redeployed.
Another critical challenge digitalization has thrown up is of fake news, especially in societies of developing nations. As we have seen in India, fake news on social networking platforms spread at lightning speed and fuel tension among the groups, sometimes even leading to human deaths. Such incidents make societies fragmented and lead the nation to nationalistic isolation impacting regional peace and harmony. This probably is the biggest challenges for all stakeholders of digitalization.
The response of the Government to these above challenges will either strengthen people’s certitude in digitalization or altogether undermine it. All they need to do is update their policies and institutions to address challenges and seize the opportunities brought about by digitalization.
If we tap the potential that digitalization offers, state capacity of our nation will certainly augment. In turn, some of the critical development challenges our country is facing: providing access to information, overcoming remoteness, exclusion and offering economic opportunity will be soon addressed. We must recognize the tremendous potential of using digital technologies for economic development, empowering the weak and bringing the fruits of democracy to every doorstep.
How governments and people respond to digitalization in the near future will impact not only our democracy, economy, freedom, rights, governance, society and the but also the digitalization itself. As nature of technology neither pro nor anti, it’s neutral.
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