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Himachal: How Orchardists Can Save Apple Crops from Scab, Premature and Alternaria Leaf Fall

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Himachal Pradesh saving apple from scab

Due to the arrival of monsoon, there is an excess of moisture in the air due to which an outbreak of diseases in plants is witnessed. The problem of scab in apple, which was considered to be almost eliminated, was also seen in some areas of Himachal Pradesh last year. This year, incidents of scab disease have been reported from some areas of Kullu, Mandi and Shimla. Therefore, it is necessary to take measures to prevent the progression of the disease. Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry (UHF), Nauni has issued an advisory to farmers for the effective management of apple scab, premature leaf fall and Alternaria leaf fall. The following advisory must be followed by the orchardists to effectively manage the diseases. 

For mid-hills

The sprays of propineb @ 0.3% (600gm / 200L water) or dodine @ 0.075% (150gm / 200L water) or metiram 55% + pyraclostrobin 5% WG @ 0.150% (300gm / 200L water) or tebuconazole 8% + captan 32% SC @ 0.25% (500ml / 200L water) are recommended for the management of apple scab.

Metiram 55% + pyraclostrobin 5% WG @ 0.150% (300gm / 200L water) or fluxapyroxad + pyraclostrobin 500 SC @ 0.01% (20ml / 200L water) are recommended for the management of premature leaf fall and Alternaria leaf spot in apple.

Himachal Pradesh apple scab photos 2

Symptoms of Apple Scab

For low hills

The sprays of propineb @ 0.3% (600gm / 200L water) is recommended for the management of apple scab, while tebuconazole 50% + trifloxystrobin 25% WG @ 0.04% (80gm / 200L water) is recommended for the management of premature leaf fall. 20-25 days before harvest, the sprays of metiram 55% + pyraclostrobin 5% WG @ 0.1% (200gm / 200 L water) is recommended for the management of apple scab and Alternaria leaf spot.

 

Apple scab Chemicals sprays

The university has advised the farmers to strictly follow the spray schedule recommended by the university and the horticulture department and take all safety precautions while undertaking spray.

Dr Parvinder Kaushal, Vice-Chancellor of the University said that the university is alert about the whole situation and it has been ensured that the scientists working in the University departments, Krishi Vigyan Kendras and Regional Research Stations located in the areas from where such incidents have been reported are providing scientific inputs to control the problem. The scientists are also visiting the orchards. He added that the university is very cautious towards this situation so that the farmers do not suffer losses.

What is Apple Scab

Apple scab is caused by the fungus, Venturia inaequalis. The fungus overwinters mainly in the infected fallen leaves on the orchard floor through the formation of pseudothecia, which produce ascospores in the spring. After deposition on leaf or fruit surface, the ascospores germinate in a film of moisture. 

The minimum wet period needed for infection is 9 hrs at 17oC. Once the infection has occurred, the fungus produces conidiophores and conidia. Sporulating lesions become visible approximately 9-17 days after infection depending upon the temperature, leaf wetness and relative humidity. The minimum relative humidity needed for sporulation to occur is between 60-70%. Upon sporulation, conidia are dispersed to leaf and fruit tissue by wind and splashing rain. 

Scab symptoms are observed on leaves, petioles, fruits and twigs. The symptoms appear in the spring as small dull olive-green patches on the young emerging leaves and sometimes only on the underside. As the disease progresses, darker spots develop on both surfaces of the leaves. Young lesions are velvety, brown to olive green or mousy black having feathery and indistinct margins.

Himachal Pradesh apple scab photos 3

Symptoms of Apple Scab

Later, these lesions coalesce and the tissues surrounding them thicken and the leaf surface is deformed, curled and distorted. Sometimes, the entire leaf surface gets covered with scab lesions. Such infected leaves turn yellow and may fall prematurely. Small superficial lesions or large patches develop on the fruit surface usually at the calyx end. The severe early infection results in the formation of misshapen fruits and serious cracking while shrivelling often occurs. The lesions on the twig are small, 3–5 mm long, slightly raised and reddish-brown spots which later develop as blisters and cause bursting of bark. 

Himachal Pradesh apple scab photos

Symptoms of Apple Scab

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Covid Restrictions in Himachal Extended Till Jan 31st, State Reports 11 Deaths in 24 Hours

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Covid restrictions in himachal pradesh 2022

Shimla-Covid-19 restrictions in Himachal Pradesh has been extended till January 31, 2022. Currently, the state is witnessing a sharp spike in daily Covid-19 cases and deaths. Today, despite a low sampling of 7896, the State reported 1766 new cases and 11 Covid-related deaths. During the last eight days,  the State has recorded over 50 deaths due to Covid-19.

The deceased included a 2-year-old female child too. Shimla district reported the highest five deaths. The Covid death toll in the state had risen to 3927 according to the latest update. But the State did not impose any new restrictions, like on the entry of visitors and curtailing capacity of public transport. Further, during the last 24 hours, Shimla, Solan, and Kangra districts reported more than 250 cases each. 

Covid restrictions in himachal pradesh extended

 A notification in this regard was issued by the Government of Himachal Pradesh (Revenue Department – Disaster Management Cell) on Monday. 

“Taking note of the present situation of Covid-19 in the State, the restrictions announced on January 5th, 8th, 9th, and 13th will continue to remain in effect till 6 am of 31st January 2022,” the notification said.

Programs scheduled on the occasion of Himachal Pradesh Statehood Day ( 25th January) and Republic Day (26th January) would be held on the condition of 50% capacity of indoor/outdoor spaces.

The educational institutes, including ITI, polytechnic colleges, and coaching institutes, would remain closed. Online classes, however, would continue in schools.

With the ongoing surge in daily cases and deaths, more restrictions could be in stock.

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Mandi Hooch Case: Political Storm Over Arrest and Expulsion of Hamirpur Congress Leader

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Hamipur district congress neeraj thakur

Mandi-On Sunday, the Himachal Pradesh Congress Committee expelled General Secretary of the Hamirpur District Congress Committee following his arrest from Chandigarh in alleged connection with the Mandi hooch case.

It’s pertinent to mention that last week seven persons had lost their lives in two days and eight others are still hospitalized due to consumption of spurious liquor in Salapar area of Sundernagar Tehsil, Mandi district. Following this tragedy, a police SIT was formed, various places were raided, seizures of incriminating materials were made, several persons were arrested. So far, the police have arrested 13 persons in this connection and more arrests could be made as the SIT unfolds layers of people involved.

Neeraj Thakur, who was said to have risen to a political leader from a salesman at a liquor shop, had created an empire for himself allegedly from the illicit trade of spurious liquor. The worth of his properties and assets is being assessed, but the initial reports suggested his assets were disproportionate to his income. Now every political leader he was in contact with is under the scanner of the police SIT.

Also Read: Mandi Hooch Case: HP Police Claim Bursting Large-Scale Illicit Liquor Trade, Nabs Kingpin

According to Superintendent of Police, Mandi, Shalini Agnihotri, on Sunday, police detained Praveen Thakur, who is a resident of Hamirpur, two persons, identified as Sunny and Pushpender of Uttar Pradesh, AK Tripathi of Jammu and Kashmir, and Sagar Saini of Delhi. The police have claimed that it has also apprehended the kingpin.

The state Congress chief and the opposition leader Mukesh Agnihotri who had been issuing statements holding the BJP government responsible for the Mandi hooch tragedy is on backfoot following the expulsion of Neeraj. At the same time, the failure of the state Excise and Taxation Department in checking this flourishing illicit trade of spurious liquor right under its nose is also evident.

State BJP general secretary Trilok Jamwal, State BJP spokesperson Baldev Tomar and co-media-in-charge Karan Nadda on Sunday issued statements referring to the expulsion of Neeraj as evidence that the Congress leaders were involved in, as well as, patron of liquor mafia in the State.

Further, with elections to the Shimla Municipal Corporation and elections to the state Assembly later this year, this issue has turned into a political storm.  

According to the SIT investigation, the illicit liquor factory was operating in Hamirpur District and raw materials were procured from both within and outside the State. The police said that Gaurav Manhas appears to be the kingpin of the illegal trade. Gaurav, with the assistance of Praveen, Pushpender and Sunny from UP, was running this illegal bottling plant at Hamirpur building owned by Praveen.

In addition, the DGP informed, Manu and Gagan were his partners in the bottling plant busted under the jurisdiction of Police Station Nalagarh. Gaurav has a strong network of distributors and supply chains for raw materials and finished liquor.

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Mandi Hooch Case: HP Police Claim Bursting Large-Scale Illicit Liquor Trade, Nabs Kingpin

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mandi liquor hooch case

Mandi-Mandi hooch case has brought shocking facts to light. An organized illicit liquor trade flourished in a village of Hamirpur district right under the nose of the Excise and Taxation Department and the police. It wasn’t a minor business but had inter-state links too. Named ‘Rainbow Café, a factory was operating in a building in a village of the district.

According to the initial police investigation, it was believed the deaths were caused by either improper mixing of the ingredients, or because a part of the spirit procured for the production of liquor may be impure and contained methyl alcohol instead of ethyl alcohol.

It raises another crucial question; can such an organized, large scale illicit business flourish without political patronage? 

Shaken by the death of seven persons due to consumption of spurious liquor in the Salapar area of Sundernagar Tehsil, the State Police formed a Special Investigating Team to investigate the case. According to the police, as the scope of the investigation had expanded, the state police included Arjit Sen (SP Una), Mohit Chawla (SP Baddi), Arvind Digvijay Negi, ASP Kangra and Yogesh Rolta (SDPO Parwanoo) in the SIT.

The police raided different places in different districts, collected evidence and seized a large amount of incriminating material.

The police had nabbed four persons in this connection. On Saturday, the Director-General of Police, Sanjay Kundu, held a press conference and claimed to have busted the illicit liquor business by arresting the prime suspect who was identified as Narender alias Kalu – a resident of village Maloh in the district. He was on the run following the deaths.

During the questioning, Kalu revealed that the main supplier of this illicit liquor consignment was one Gaurav Manhas alias Goru of Palampur. A police team traced his location and apprehended him from a hotel in Zirkpur on Friday.

On being questioned by the SIT, it was found that Goru belonged to the Panchrukhi area of Kangra. According to the police investigation, Goru was running an illicit bottling unit at Hamirpur in collusion with Praveen Thakur. It was also revealed that the raw material for production and packaging was received from other persons belonging to different states.

One Sagar Saini, who belonged to Delhi, supplied the spirit drums and AK Tripathi, who hailed from Samba, Jammu and Kashmir, provided the formula, the police said.

Further, it was revealed that the bottling unit in Hamirpur was run by two persons who belonged to Uttar Pradesh. The duo was responsible for mixing ingredients for the manufacture of liquor. Empty bottles were procured from ‘kabaddi’ in Hamirpur and bottles, caps, boxes and cartons were supplied from Parwanoo. VRV Santra stickers were created by a graphic designer.

Following Seizures Were Made from Hamirpur

1. More than 6000 bottles filled with illicit liquor labelled as “VRV Fools Pvt. Ltd.”,
2. five plastic tanks (300 Its each),
3. seven boxes containing bottle caps marked “VRV foods Ltd.”,
4. nine plastic drums (50. Its each),
5. one carton containing 136 strips of labels marked “Santra, VRV Fools Pvt. Ltd.”
6. 124 sheets containing more than 2500 holograms,
7. 18 plastic tag rolls marked VRV Foods,
8. one carton containing four bottles (500 ml each)
9. one jerry cans (5 Its) containing flavour,
10. three aluminium katchhhi, two bottle sealing machines,
11. one plastic jerry can filled with coloring material for the illicit liquor,
12. 56 plastic bags filled with more than 2500 empty bottles,
13. more than 2000 empty cartons marked “VRV Foods Ltd”,
14. one bottle filling machine,
15. seven stamps marked with impression of Batch No. 61, 62 and 361; 33 distilled water plastic containers (20 Its each)

These items were seized from the illegal premises busted at Panyala village, Hamirpur. The premises was marked as “Rainbow Café”.

At the instance accused Goru, another bottling plant was located under Station Nalagarh which was subsequently raided by police in Baddi.

The suppliers of holograms, labels, cartons, used bottles, spirit, bottles caps and material for the illicit production have been identified and apprehended during searches in the neighbouring districts Kangra, Solan, Hamirpur.

According to the SIT investigation, the illicit liquor factory was operating in Hamirpur District and raw materials were procured from both within and outside the State. The police said that Gaurav Manhas appears to be the kingpin of the illegal trade. Gaurav, with the assistance of Praveen, Pushpender and Sunny from UP, was running this illegal bottling plant at Hamirpur building owned by Praveen.

In addition, the DGP informed, Manu and Gagan were his partners in the bottling plant busted under the jurisdiction of Police Station Nalagarh. Gaurav has a strong network of distributors and supply chains for raw materials and finished liquor. The racket included the following major partners:

1. Gaurav Manhas alias Goru (kingpin),
2. Praveen (owner of the building used as an illegal bottling plant)
3. Pushpender and Sunny (workers in the plant)
4. Manu and Gagan (prime suspects in Nalagarh case)

The DGP said that further investigation is underway and a clearer picture will emerge after the collection of evidence and interrogation of all accused.

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