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Himachal: How Orchardists Can Save Apple Crops from Scab, Premature and Alternaria Leaf Fall

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Himachal Pradesh saving apple from scab

Due to the arrival of monsoon, there is an excess of moisture in the air due to which an outbreak of diseases in plants is witnessed. The problem of scab in apple, which was considered to be almost eliminated, was also seen in some areas of Himachal Pradesh last year. This year, incidents of scab disease have been reported from some areas of Kullu, Mandi and Shimla. Therefore, it is necessary to take measures to prevent the progression of the disease. Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry (UHF), Nauni has issued an advisory to farmers for the effective management of apple scab, premature leaf fall and Alternaria leaf fall. The following advisory must be followed by the orchardists to effectively manage the diseases. 

For mid-hills

The sprays of propineb @ 0.3% (600gm / 200L water) or dodine @ 0.075% (150gm / 200L water) or metiram 55% + pyraclostrobin 5% WG @ 0.150% (300gm / 200L water) or tebuconazole 8% + captan 32% SC @ 0.25% (500ml / 200L water) are recommended for the management of apple scab.

Metiram 55% + pyraclostrobin 5% WG @ 0.150% (300gm / 200L water) or fluxapyroxad + pyraclostrobin 500 SC @ 0.01% (20ml / 200L water) are recommended for the management of premature leaf fall and Alternaria leaf spot in apple.

Himachal Pradesh apple scab photos 2

Symptoms of Apple Scab

For low hills

The sprays of propineb @ 0.3% (600gm / 200L water) is recommended for the management of apple scab, while tebuconazole 50% + trifloxystrobin 25% WG @ 0.04% (80gm / 200L water) is recommended for the management of premature leaf fall. 20-25 days before harvest, the sprays of metiram 55% + pyraclostrobin 5% WG @ 0.1% (200gm / 200 L water) is recommended for the management of apple scab and Alternaria leaf spot.

 

Apple scab Chemicals sprays

The university has advised the farmers to strictly follow the spray schedule recommended by the university and the horticulture department and take all safety precautions while undertaking spray.

Dr Parvinder Kaushal, Vice-Chancellor of the University said that the university is alert about the whole situation and it has been ensured that the scientists working in the University departments, Krishi Vigyan Kendras and Regional Research Stations located in the areas from where such incidents have been reported are providing scientific inputs to control the problem. The scientists are also visiting the orchards. He added that the university is very cautious towards this situation so that the farmers do not suffer losses.

What is Apple Scab

Apple scab is caused by the fungus, Venturia inaequalis. The fungus overwinters mainly in the infected fallen leaves on the orchard floor through the formation of pseudothecia, which produce ascospores in the spring. After deposition on leaf or fruit surface, the ascospores germinate in a film of moisture. 

The minimum wet period needed for infection is 9 hrs at 17oC. Once the infection has occurred, the fungus produces conidiophores and conidia. Sporulating lesions become visible approximately 9-17 days after infection depending upon the temperature, leaf wetness and relative humidity. The minimum relative humidity needed for sporulation to occur is between 60-70%. Upon sporulation, conidia are dispersed to leaf and fruit tissue by wind and splashing rain. 

Scab symptoms are observed on leaves, petioles, fruits and twigs. The symptoms appear in the spring as small dull olive-green patches on the young emerging leaves and sometimes only on the underside. As the disease progresses, darker spots develop on both surfaces of the leaves. Young lesions are velvety, brown to olive green or mousy black having feathery and indistinct margins.

Himachal Pradesh apple scab photos 3

Symptoms of Apple Scab

Later, these lesions coalesce and the tissues surrounding them thicken and the leaf surface is deformed, curled and distorted. Sometimes, the entire leaf surface gets covered with scab lesions. Such infected leaves turn yellow and may fall prematurely. Small superficial lesions or large patches develop on the fruit surface usually at the calyx end. The severe early infection results in the formation of misshapen fruits and serious cracking while shrivelling often occurs. The lesions on the twig are small, 3–5 mm long, slightly raised and reddish-brown spots which later develop as blisters and cause bursting of bark. 

Himachal Pradesh apple scab photos

Symptoms of Apple Scab

Misc News/Press Release

Mandi Greenfield Airport: HP Govt to Acquire upto 3150 Mts Land for Phase-II

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Mandi Airport photo

Mandi-Himachal Pradesh Government yesterday held a meeting regarding the construction of Greenfield Airport at Nagchala in Mandi district and expansion of Kangra and Shimla Airports. 

It was informed that land measuring 2936 bigha has been identified for construction of Greenfield Airport in Mandi district and site clearance has been obtained in January 2020.  During the meeting held with the Ministry of Civil Aviation in November 2019, it was decided that AAI go ahead with 2100 meters length of the runway in phase-I. However, Government of Himachal Pradesh would acquire land for proposed runway upto 3150 meters for phase-II and additional land would be kept unutilized as a buffer zone, he added.  The State Government had signed MoU for development and operation of this Greenfield airport through a Joint Venture Company on 15th January 2020, it was informed.

As per estimates, a total expenditure of Rs. 7448 crore would be incurred on this project on land acquisition, terminal building, runways and allied activities. An expenditure of Rs.  2786 crore on land acquisition, Rs. 2965 crore on other developmental activities, Rs. 900 crore on the terminal building, runway and allied infrastructure,  Rs. 782 crore on structures and Rs. 15 crores on compensatory levies for FCA  would be made. This proposed airstrip would require channelization of Suketi khad.

It was informed that 1780 bigha of land has been identified for the development and expansion of Kangra Airport for the operation of A-320 type of aircraft and cost of acquisition of land and allied activities would be Rs. 3347.18 crore. This proposed airstrip would require channelization of Manjhi khad alongwith construction of new approach road to the airport.

While referring about the expansion of Shimla Airport, it was informed that Union Civil Aviation Minister in November 2019 has agreed to provide funds for expansion of Shimla Airport runway adding a length of another 300 meters for which land measuring 182-11 bighas had been identified.  Proposal for the Social Impact Assessment (SIA) has been submitted.

Photo: [email protected]

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1802 Job Opportunities for Those Who Returned to State Due to COVID-19: HPKVN

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Himachal-Pradesh-Skill-Register 2

Shimla-Managing Director, Himachal Pradesh Kaushal Vikas Nigam (HPKVN), Rohan Chand Thakur, informed on October 30, 2020, that thousands of unemployed skilled and semi-skilled citizens have returned to the state due to COVID pandemic. He claimed that through its Skill Register portal, till date, over 16,406 people have registered themselves for employment.

HPKVN approached various industries and companies located in the state and identified about 1802 employment opportunities. Some big names include HAVELLS, Voltas, Tafe, Indoco Remedies and organizations like MT Autocraft, Parwanoo etc, he informed.

He said that these job opportunities were mapped as per the eligibility, qualification and aspiration of the citizens registered on the ‘Skill Register’ portal and based on such mapping, HPKVN identified 1685 candidates eligible for the job opportunities offered by various industries.

These candidates were individually contacted, counselled and motivated to join the available job opportunities. Consequently, 405 candidates expressed their interest in joining the job. Out of these, 282 candidates appeared for the interview and 102 candidates got shortlisted through interview.

“For rest who could not join the job opportunities are being further counselled and motivated by the HPKVN team so that suitable matching job opportunity can be offered to them,”

he informed.

He cited job location, higher salary expectations etc as the reason behind candidates not willing to join despite having requisite qualification. HPKVN is also working on providing multiple offers to each candidate so that they have options to choose from.

Managing Director said that skilled and semi-skilled unemployed citizens returning from outside states can register themselves on ‘skillregister.hp.gov.in’ where companies and industries can also register their requirements, after which the Himachal Pradesh Kaushal Vikas Nigam will attempt to provide job opportunities to the applicants in the nearest company or industry according to their ability and eligibility.

 

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Himachal: Education Minister, 22 Teachers in Three Schools, SDM Test Positive for COVID-19

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himachal pradesh teachers test positive

Shimla-Ahead of re-opening of schools for regular classes from November 2,  22 teachers in three schools of Mandi district – Sarkaghat, Killing, Thunag- have tested positive. Today, Education Minister Govind Singh Thakur and a person in his staff also tested positive. He informed regarding the report through a social media post. He has quarantined himself at his residence, he said. He has requested other people who have come in contact with him recently to get tested and isolate themselves.

Besides, the Sub-Divisional Magistrate (SDM), Joginder Nagar, has also tested positive.

A total of 332 new cases with two deaths were recorded on Wednesday, according to the statistics provided by the Health Department. So far, about half a dozen ministers and the Chief Minister have tested positive for COVID-19 and recovered too. 

Four deaths have been reported today (till 12 pm), and the COVID-19 tally for the state had reached 21150, of which 2513 were active cases.  

So far, a total of 298 persons have lost their lives due to COVID-19, if the official statistics to be believed. The actual number of cases, as well as, deaths could be higher due to a community spread. However, so far, the state government has not given any projection regarding the actual numbers.

Till yesterday evening (9 PM), a total of 380415 persons had been tested for COVID-19 in the state.   

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