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Eminent scientists at UHF Nauni brainstorm over efficacy of anti-hail guns

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Management of Hailstorm for Sustainable Crop Production in Himachal Pradesh 2

Solan: Hail storms are nightmares for fruit and vegetable growers of Himachal Pradesh. Hails causes huge financial losses to farmers every year. Farmers in some areas use anti-hail guns but it is very expensive. Moreover, there is no concrete data available regarding the efficiency of these guns.

Surprisingly, the government had been missing another crucial aspect that could help in the assessment of the guns: feedback from farmers. It is not sufficient to install an anti-hail gun on subsidized rates; farmers should also be aware of technical aspects so that they know how to use them most efficiently.

Though the WMO has documented that there is no physical evidence of anti-hail guns efficiency, the guns did find more utility when used in concordance with the radar.

It was revealed by Dr Anand Sharma, DGM, Indian Meteorological Department while speaking at a two-day workshop and interaction meet on ‘Management of Hailstorm for Sustainable Crop Production in Himachal Pradesh’ commenced at the Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry (UHF), Nauni on Friday.

The workshop is being organized by UHF’s Department of Environmental Science in collaboration with the Department of Horticulture, Government of Himachal Pradesh.

This is the first workshop of its kind to be held in the state.


UHF Nauni workshop on anti-hail guns

The aforesaid issues were attended in the workshop along with interaction session with farmers using anti-hail guns in their areas.

The main objective of the workshop was to discuss the status of hailstorm occurrence and its impacts on mountain ecosystem,

explained Dr SK Bhardwaj, Head Department of Environmental Sciences

Eminent scientists from across the country, experts from IIT Bombay and Hyderabad, Indian Meteorological Department, DRDO along with progressive farmers from the state and representatives of private companies are also participating in the event.
Management of Hailstorm for Sustainable Crop Production in Himachal Pradesh

Dr HC Sharma, UHF Vice-Chancellor was the Chief Guest for inaugural function. Principal Secretary Horticulture (HP) RD Dhiman and Additional Director Horticulture Dr. ML Dhiman also took part in the workshop.

During the several technical sessions, deliberations on various aspects of suitable hailstorm management technologies will be held with a focus on researchable issues for ensuring the suitable livelihood of farmers and strengthening the ‘Make in India’ initiative.

Climatic changes were occurring all around the world and preparations were needed for good crop and fruit cultivation,

said Dr HC Sharma, emphasizing on the need for continuous data resource requirement for assessing the impacts of anti-hail guns on precipitation in an area.

Dr. Sharma was of the view that the indigenous technologies under the ambit of Make in India should be explored for developing cheaper anti-hail guns in the country itself and stressed on long-term research assessments of this technology.

RD Dhiman, Principal Secretary Horticulture stated that the idea behind the workshop was to get feedback from the farmers who have been working in the areas where anti-hail guns have been operational.

He said that the climatic calamities such as hailstorms lead to financial losses for the farmers and such discussions showed the state government’s commitment to finding efficient solutions. He said that the workshop was a means to evolve scientific knowhow about the most effective and efficient ways for anti-hail measures.

Dr. ML Dhiman stressed on the need to address the challenges of hailstorms in the horticulture and vegetable growing belts of the state. He advised setting up permanent structures for anti-hail nets and suggested the utility of anti-hail guns in these areas as an efficient remedial measure.

Dr. JN Sharma, UHF Director of Research focused on the apple productivity research areas on which the university scientists have been working and highlighted the utility of the workshop for tackling newer issues that the farmers were facing.
Dr Anand also stressed on the need for crop insurance and the use of internet and Kisan portal.

In the second session on the theme ‘Frequency of occurrence and impacts of hailstorms on crop production in Himachal’, Dr. Anand Sharma, DGM IMD, and Dr. Manmohan Singh, Director, Regional MET Centre Shimla, explained the phenomenon of hailstorm formation and the Cumulonimbus clouds associated with it.

Dr. Sharma said that hail caused more than a billion dollar in losses all over the world each year. He was of the view that specific prediction of hail was very difficult and a challenge that needed further research.

He suggested developing microscale models for a particular area and setting up of radars in the state to predict the possibility of hail forming cloud movements. He also discussed mitigation strategies like weather modification through the use of silver iodide and anti-hail gun.

Dr Manmohan Singh addressed the participants on the status of hailstorms in the state. He explained how the occurrence of hailstorms had a varied frequency in the months of March, April, and May in different regions of the state. He also clarified that only a third of all Cumulonimbus clouds lead to hail. He also discussed various methods of dissemination of weather data.

During the interaction session between the farmers and scientists, six progressive farmers from the areas where anti-hail guns have been operational shared their experiences about the frequency and impacts of hailstorms in their respective areas and the advantages and disadvantages of the technology.

A farmer working with an NGO in the Khaneri area of Kotkhai shared that the lack of technical guidance regarding the usage of the anti-hail gun in their area was a concern.

Lack of maintenance of anti-hail guns and high costs of anti-hail nets were other issues raised by the farmers.

Pic: Tribune (Anti-hail gun)

Environment

Freshwater Pollutants To Become Major Cause of Deaths by 2050, warns UN Study

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Millions to die in india due to pollution by 2050

The most comprehensive and rigorous assessment on the state of the environment completed by the UN in the last five years was published today. The report, which was produced by 250 scientists and experts from more than 70 countries, says that either we drastically scale up environmental protections, or cities and regions in Asia, the Middle East and Africa could see millions of premature deaths by mid-century.

Pollutants in our freshwater systems will see anti-microbial resistance become a major cause of death by 2050 and endocrine disruptors impact male and female fertility, as well as child neurodevelopment”

the study warned.

The science is clear. The health and prosperity of humanity are directly tied to the state of our environment. This report is an outlook for humanity. We are at a crossroads. Do we continue on our current path, which will lead to a bleak future for humankind, or do we pivot to a more sustainable development pathway? That is the choice our political leaders must make, now,

said Joyce Msuya, Acting Executive Director of UN Environment.

Innovative Policy Options

The projection of a future healthy planet with healthy people is based on a new way of thinking where the ‘grow now, clean up after’ model is changed to a near-zero-waste economy by 2050. According to the Outlook, green investment of 2 per cent of countries’ GDP would deliver long-term growth as high as we presently projected but with fewer impacts from climate change, water scarcity and loss of ecosystems.

At present, the world is not on track to meet the SDGs by 2030 or 2050. Urgent action is required now as any delay in climate action increases the cost of achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement, or reversing our progress and at some point, will make them impossible.

The report advises adopting less-meat intensive diets, and reducing food waste in both developed and developing countries, would reduce the need to increase food production by 50% to feed the projected 9-10 billion people on the planet in 2050. At present, 33 per cent of global edible food is wasted, and 56 per cent of waste happens in industrialized countries, the report states.

While urbanization is happening at an unprecedented level globally, the report says it can present an opportunity to increase citizens’ well-being while decreasing their environmental footprint through improved governance, land-use planning and green infrastructure. Furthermore, strategic investment in rural areas would reduce pressure for people to migrate.

The report calls for action to curb the flow of the 8 million tons of plastic pollution going into oceans each year. While the issue has received increased attention in recent years, there is still no global agreement to tackle marine litter.

The scientists note advancements in collecting environmental statistics, particularly geospatial data, and highlight there is huge potential for advancing knowledge using big data and stronger data collection collaborations between public and private partners.

Policy interventions that address entire systems – such as energy, food, and waste – rather than individual issues, such as water pollution, can be much more effective, according to the authors.  For example, a stable climate and clean air are interlinked; the climate mitigation actions for achieving the Paris Agreement targets would cost about US$ 22 trillion, but the combined health benefits from reduced air pollution could amount to an additional US$ 54 trillion.

The report shows that policies and technologies already exist to fashion new development pathways that will avoid these risks and lead to health and prosperity for all people,

said Joyeeta Gupta and Paul Ekins, co-chairs of the GEO-6 process.

What is currently lacking is the political will to implement policies and technologies at a sufficient speed and scale,

they added.

The sixth Global Environmental Outlook has been released while environmental ministers from around the world are in Nairobi to participate in the world’s highest-level environmental forum. Negotiations at the Fourth UN Environment Assembly are expected to tackle critical issues such as stopping food waste, promoting the spread of electric mobility, and tackling the crisis of plastic pollution in our oceans, among many other pressing challenges.

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Environment

Total 332 Bird Species Located in Himachal Pradesh

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Bird Species Count in Himachal Pradesh

Shimla-As per the Great Backyard Bird Count (7th Indian edition), the number of bird species in Himachal Pradesh was 332 in 2018, a spokesman of State Forest Department informed on February 21, 2019.  

PCCF (WL) Dr. Savita said that among the Indian States, Himachal Pradesh shared the topmost position with Uttrakhand where the highest number of species was recorded.  

Birding locations included wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, conservation reserves, villages and urban areas. She said that more than 150 bird species were recorded in Mandi, Shimla, Kangra and Sirmaur districts.

The Great Backyard Bird Count is a citizen science initiative intended to encourage both amateur and professional bird-watchers to contribute towards the understanding bird and their biology in a better way.

The Department said that amateur birders from across the state contributed in the count in addition to 287 checklists that were uploaded into e-Bird by 55 participants.

 Participation in the event involved a minimum of 15 minutes bird watching during which all the bird species seen were counted and listed.  It involved bird watching sessions with school teachers and students, birding involving local villagers and panchayat representatives and training of frontline staff of the forest department in bird identification.

The Department said a detailed report is in preparation and will be circulated by the first week of March

This initiative was coordinated by Joint Secretary (Forests) Sat Pal Dhiman, Chief Conservator Forest (HQR) Nagesh Guleria, Chief Conservator Forest (WL) South Sushil Kapta, DFO (Hqr) N.P.S. Dhaulta along with other senior officers of the department.

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Watch: IIT Mandi Researchers Use ‘Pollutant Diesel Emissions’ For Water Treatment

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IIT mandi uses diesel soot sponge for water treatment

Mandi- Researchers at Indian Institute of Technology Mandi have used the soot emitted by diesel engines to mop up oil and other organic pollutants from water. Their work has been recently published in the journal – Environmental Science and Pollution Research.

Although diesel engines are known to be superior to other internal combustion engines in terms of lower fuel consumption and better energy release efficiencies, they are associated with significant amounts of particulate emissions.

 The particulates largely comprise soot, which is formed in the fuel rich regions of the burning diesel jets. Increasing environmental concerns and stringent emission standards require the development of both conventional and unconventional means for reducing soot.

 Studies in this area have focused on improving the engine design and incorporating special filters and treatment units at the exhaust end of the vehicle.

Dr. Rahul Vaish, Associate Professor, School of Engineering at IIT Mandi and his research students Vishvendra Pratap Singh and Moolchand Sharma have looked at this problem from a different perspective.

They rationalized that while it is impossible to bring down soot emissions to zero, it is possible to find a use for the soot produced.

 Carbon species such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, and candle soot have shown their potential in many fields,

says Dr. Vaish,

so why not automobile soot?

It is known that carbon species can absorb various organic pollutants in water. Carbon nanotubes, filter paper, mesh films, and graphene have been used for removing oil from water. Given that the typical carbon content of soot is between 90 and 98%, the team explored the possibility of using this pollutant as an adsorbent of oil and organic contaminants in water.

 There is a rapid increase in oil and chemical leakages from oil tankers or ships and industrial accidents with expansion in oil production and transportation in the last few decades,

the authors write in their recently published paper, justifying the need for new materials to mop up oil and prevent catastrophic environmental outcomes.

 In an earlier study, Dr. Vaish used candle soot to successfully remove two cationic dyes, rhodamine B and methylene blue from water, thereby showing the possibility of organic from water thereby showing the possibility of organic chemical removal by soot. Extending this earlier work, the research team incorporated diesel exhaust soot into polymer sponges to study their capability to adsorb oil and other organic materials from water. This hydrophobic sponge showed high absorption capacity for various oils, without the need for complex pretreatments.

The researchers found that the highest oil absorption capacity was 39 g/g for engine oil. An interesting observation was that the sponges were recyclable and retained 95% efficiency even after 10 cycles.

The diesel soot impregnated sponge could also absorb pollutants like methylene blue, ciprofloxacin, and detergent from the water. This has practical implications.

Apart from oil spills, organic pollutants such as traces of dyes and detergent coming from industries and households are a major contributor to water pollution,

says Dr. Vaish.

The soot impregnated sponge can help in developing cost-effective remediation processes for common domestic and industrial pollutants. Such a development would additionally serve to repurpose automobile waste.

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