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Bail or Jail; High Court of Tripura Grapples With Drug Menace

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Chief Justice of Tripura High Court Sanjay Karol

Tripura –Tripura, a small 10,039 sq km state, is encircled on three sides by Bangladesh and is three hours by train from its capital Dhaka and main port city Chittagong. An increase in drug/substance abuse has been noted in this small state. It is seen that hard drugs are being smuggled into the state from Bangladesh and Burma. Indian made cough syrup is peddled in Bangladesh while the Burmese Ya ba tablets come to Tripura.

Ya ba is an amphetamine, and the tablets are mostly manufactured in Myanmar. Ya ba tablets typically are consumed orally. Users also heat tablets and inhale the vapours (also called ‘chasing the dragon’). These hard drugs are lethal and addictive. Drug mafia/dealers are equipped with hard drugs, other contraband and are connected to their counterparts in the neighboring countries.

Recently the High Court of Tripura in “Haricharan Versus State of Tripura”, while grappling with this serious problem of drug abuse in the State, passed an important order in a case allegedly involving drug mafia, dealing in huge commercial quantities of contraband. The Court took a serious view of the failure of ‘the investigating agencies’ and also of the ‘lower judiciary’ of the State for disregarding the settled law w.r.t bails. The order gives elaborate interpretation and explanation of the sections of the criminal procedure code and of the NDPS Act 1985.  The order further explains the concept of default bail and when the default bail principles, can and cannot, be invoked.

Facts

On 29th September 2018, based on a piece of secret information, police conducted search and seizure operations and from the dwelling house of accused recovered commercial quantities i.e 289 Kgs. of dry ganja, concealed in different drums.

Further investigation revealed that arrested persons were carrying on the illegal activity of the commercial sale of the contraband substance in an organized manner and operations had been going on for over a considerable period of time.

Under instructions from the DGP, a statement with regard to the status of the cases under the provision of the NDPS Act and release of the accused persons (of 2018) was called for and furnished to the Hon’ble Court.

The police told the Hon’ble Court in a statement that a total of 433 cases were registered in 2018 and cases were pending beyond 90 days in 278 of them. A total of 65,364 kilograms of cannabis, 3096 grams of heroin and 1, 88, 099 bottles of cough syrup were seized, the police added.

After going through this report, Hon’ble J. Karol speaking for the court, was shocked and expressed his concern:

“A shocking state of affairs with regard to the manner in which investigation is being carried out by the agencies. Also, it reveals that out of 660 persons arrested in connection with the crime relating to psychotropic substance, 435 persons stand enlarged on bail.

“What are the reasons for grant of bail; is it what is commonly termed as a default bail; is it that the Public Prosecutor conceded to the grant of bail; is it that the Public Prosecutors did not oppose the same; is it that the Courts have passed the orders without following the settled principles of law; or is it that innocent stand falsely implicated. If so, then why no action, in accordance with the law, stands taken against the erring persons by the authorities.”

The Court noted that prevalent situation, was extremely alarming, with regard to production, trafficking and use of contraband substance within the State of Tripura. The Court lamented that even after the alarming state of affairs, day in and day out the question of grant of bail under the provisions of the Act was arising for consideration and that too, despite the law being fully settled.

The lower Courts in the state while dealing with the bail applications were passing orders dehors to the settled principles of law. Specifically, Section 37 of the Act, which imposes a restriction on the right of the accused to seek bail was not being correctly interpreted and applied.

The Court also observed that,

“What is shocking is that in none of the orders, be it a grant of ad-interim bail or extension thereof, did the Court ever consider the factors relevant for grant of bail as envisaged under the Act. It does not even refer to the provisions of Section 37 of the Act, much less record its satisfaction with regard thereto. In fact, even the basic ingredients for deciding the application of bail, any which way, were referred to or discussed. In a most cryptic and unseasoned manner, orders rejecting/granting bail stands passed or extended from time to time.”

Can an illness of a mother or a child in a case of this nature, alone, be a ground for grant of bail? Certainly not.

Hon’ble J. Karol went on painstakingly to elaborate on different principles of law that got attracted in the case, for example, the Court stated:

“Liberty is a greatly cherished value in the life of an individual, however, it is a controlled and restricted one and no element in the society can act in a manner by consequence of which the life or liberty of others is jeopardized, for the rational collective does not countenance an anti-social or anti-collective act.”

It is also to be kept in mind that individual liberty cannot be accentuated to such an extent or elevated to such a high pedestal which would bring in anarchy or disorder in the society. The prospect of greater justice requires that law and order should prevail in a civilized milieu. Liberty is to be secured through process of law, which is administered keeping in mind the interests of the accused, the near and dear of the victim who feel helpless and believe that there is no justice in the world as also the collective interest of the community so that parties do not lose faith in the institution and indulge in private retribution.

The Hon’ble Justice further held:

“The amplitude of the power of the Constitutional Court be it under the Constitution or the statute (Cr.P.C) is wide enough to correct any illegality, either on the asking of the State or on its own motion. Even the Court cannot be unmindful of the fact that such power is being exercised in a case where allegedly the accused is involved in dealing with a huge quantity of contraband substance. Under all circumstances, the Court has to strike a balance vis-a-vis the liberty of an individual and the societal rights.”

The Court also gave a difference between default bail and the provisions under Sec. 37. of the Act. In Special cases, covered by section 37 which deals with instances of huge commercial quantities or bringing drugs in the country from foreign jurisdictions, etc, the principle is:

“Negation of bail is rule and its grant an exception”.

It is settled law, as laid down by the Apex court, that when bail has to be granted in cases where the offense have happened under section 37 of the NDPS Act 1985 then the Court must, on the basis of the record produced before it, be satisfied that there are reasonable grounds for believing that;

  1. The accused is not guilty of the offenses with which he is charged and
  2. That he is not likely to commit any offense while on bail.

At the time of considering an application for bail, the Court must take into account certain factors such as

  • The existence of a prima facie case against the accused,
  • The gravity of the allegations, position, and status of the accused,
  • The likelihood of the accused fleeing from justice and repeating the offense.
  • The possibility of tampering with the witnesses and obstructing the Courts
  • The criminal antecedents of the accused.

After going through various Apex court decisions with respect to the law regarding Bails, Menace of Drugs, Non-Compliance of Mandatory Provisions of The Act, , Principles of Liberty and also after noting the failures of the investigating agencies and of the Courts below, which had granted bail to the accused on the ground that “his mother was ailing and that he has a young daughter”, the Court ultimately found that the orders of granting ad-interim bail did not fulfil “the twin test” laid down by the Supreme Court (Supra) nor was it in accordance with the law and  hence deserved to be quashed.

However, the Court also noted that this does not mean that in every case registered under the NDPS Act, the learned Public Prosecutor must necessarily oppose the bail. The above-mentioned case was a special case of a ‘drug mafia’, dealing in huge commercial quantities of contraband, certainly, they can’t be equated with the small-time offenders. It goes without saying that when Section 37 is not attracted then provisions of criminal Procedure Court will apply, here the principle that prevails is:

“Bail is a rule and jail an exception”.

The Order of the Hon’ble Tripura High Court is very detailed and is a ready reckoner for anyone who wants to understand the law regarding Bails.

Deven Khanna is a Lawyer practising at High Court of Himachal Pradesh, other H.P Courts/Tribunals and the Supreme Court of India, he is an alumnus of a National Law School.

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Large Quantity of Banned Tobacco Products Seized in Shimla City

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Shimla SDM seizes Banned Tobacco products in himachal

Shimla-In 2012, Himachal Pradesh Government had imposed a complete ban on the storage, manufacture, and distribution of tobacco-based products that included gutka (tobacco-laced areca nut pieces), pan masala, and khaini. At that time, gutka used to cost at an MRP of Rs. 1 and Khaini and Pan Masala between Rs. 3 to Rs 5. 

However, the imposition of the ban didn’t yield the desired results of discouraging consumption of these chewing tobacco products. Seizure of these products in occasional raids aptly proves it.

In a similar instance, on July 18, 2019, the Sub-divisional Magistrate, Shimla (Urban), Niraj Chandla, raided four shops near Lakkar Bazaar bus stand in Shimla city.  In this raid, about nine sacks of gutka and khaini, each weighing between 15-20 kg, were seized from a wholesale distributor and three other shops. It implies that over 150 kg of banned tobacco products were seized from just four shops.

SDM Shimla Raid

SDM Shimla (Urban) During the Raid

The seized products were sent to Lakkar Bazaar police station and a case was registered against the offenders under Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COPTA), 2003. The Excise and Taxation Department has also been asked to take action.

“Shops were inspected in Lakkar Bazar area near the bus stand. Many complaints of sale of tobacco products were received, so a team was formulated and a raid was conducted. Banned tobacco products were recovered from the raided shops. Nine cartons were seized and handed over to police to proceed under COTPA,”

confirmed a member of the team.

Gutka sale in Himachal Pradesh

Banned tobacco products seized from a shop in Lakkar Bazaar during a raid

The SDM said she had been receiving complaints regarding the sale of these products.

The situation is far worse in reality.  These products continue to be sold in black. After seven years of the ban, these products can be bought anywhere in the state. The only difference that is noticeable is that now the Gutka that used to cost Rs. 1 is sold for about Rs. 5 and Khaini that used to cost Rs 5 is now sold for Rs 10-15 in black. Apparently, this money goes into the black market as officially these products are not sold in the state.

This issue has appeared in media several times since the imposition of the ban. Himachal Watcher had also highlighted the issue in 2012 and 2015.  Moreover, the discarded empty packaging of these products can be found littered across the state, which clearly suggests these products are still in use. 

On Nov 4, 2015, Himachal Pradesh government had announced a complete ban on the sale of loose cigarettes. However, a report on HW had noted that loose cigarettes continued to be sold at a higher price after the ban. Also, shopkeepers didn’t hesitate to sell these products to minors. Students of St. Thomas School, as a part of their internship with HW, had submitted this report with a video. The students themselves visited shops and bought loose cigarettes.

In nutshell, the State government has completely failed to implement that ban strictly, and this is why, despite the provision of a heavy fine of upto Rs. 25,000, shopkeepers are fearlessly selling banned tobacco products.   

These shopkeepers take precaution and sell these products to known buyers in their respective localities. In case of loose cigarette, shopkeepers are less precautious.

The challenge for the government is to ensure compliance with its policies of imposing such bans. Occasional action on selected sellers would not solve the purpose. Otherwise, the imposition of the ban on these products is only boosting the black market.

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Garbage Dumping Polluting Giri Ganga River – A Drinking Water Supply Source of Shimla

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Giri Ganga River pollution in Shimla

Shimla– The Gumma Nagar Panchayat in Kotkhai, Shimla district, like most of the other rural areas, lacks a proper solid waste management system. As a result, the usual method adopted here is dumping daily solid waste down the hill in an official dumping yard.

The locals from the panchayat wrote to Himachal Watcher regarding the adverse effect the dumping site in Gumma causing.

Gumma dumping yard in Shimla district 03 (2)

Overflowing dumping site in Gumma

They said the panchayat has allocated the site shown in the photo above to dump their garbage. This garbage is mostly left unsorted. 

With the growing population and increasing number of shops, the hillside is now overflowing with rubbish. This overflowing waste from the dump finds its way down to the Giri river water. 

It not only looks unsightly but also emits a foul smell. Moreover, the half-burnt rubbish flies in all directions, mostly downhill into the water.

Gumma dumping yard in Shimla district 3

The office of the Assistant Engineer, IPH Subdivision Gumma, is located near to this location. Still, the issue is being ignored. 

“Interestingly, the Department of Irrigation & Public Health is sitting above the location, blind and oblivious to it all,”

Devanshe Chauhan Lidgley, a local told Himachal Watcher.

IPH Office in Gumma

Office of the Assistant Engineer, IPH, Gumma

She further added,

“Complaints have been made to the Gumma Panchayat Pradhan who showed helplessness since it was a decision made by higher officials,”

The panchayat pradhan of Gumma told HW that, indeed, the area is facing a problem with daily garbage. There are five wards in the Nagar panchayat, and villagers do not have any common dumping ground. 

“The villagers have found suitable spots near their habitats where they dump their daily garbage,”

Tara Chauhan, the Pradhan of the panchayat told HW

“The dumping site shown in the pictures is particularly created to accommodate daily waste generated by shops in the market. The market has about 300 shops, and the daily waste is transported through pic-ups to the dumping site,”

she added.  

Gumma dumping yard in Shimla district 03 (1)

A Pick-up dumping Gumma Market’s daily waste downhill

She also accepted that this dumping site is now overflowing as the amount of waste dumped is increasing. The issue has been brought to the attention of district administration of Shimla, she said, adding that the administration has asked the panchayat to find a new location for the creation of another dumping yard. However, it’s hard to procure land for it as no one would allow the creation of dumping site on private land, she said. 

“Earlier, we used to set the garbage ablaze when dumping reached on the verge of overflowing. However, now, we have directions not to burn garbage as it causes air pollution,”

Chauhan told HW. 

Gumma dumping yard in Shimla district

As a matter of fact, the said dumping site is overflowing and, in monsoon, a lot of waste is likely to find its way into the Giri Ganga. 

Giri Ganga is one of the main sources of drinking water supply to Shimla, and there is no need to say more why it requires immediate intervention of the district administration and the state pollution control board to prevent water pollution.

In the past, Shimla has already witnessed instances of jaundice outbreaks due to contaminated water that had killed about two dozen people.  However, it appears, we are waiting for another catastrophe to happen before appropriate action is taken.  

The garbage dumped here needs to be removed regularly and disposed of properly before the next truck of garbage is dumped. 

“Is the ‘Swaacch Bharat’ campaign only on papers? How can the National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) succeed if the sources of Ganga are being polluted?”

asked the local.

It is a matter of concern that the district administration is still stuck at creating dumping yards, which is not a proper way to dispose of solid waste. At the same time, the villagers are left at their own to deal with the daily waste they generate. The State government needs to provide a solid waste treatment facility in rural areas.  

However, there are reasons to believe that the government is hardly concerned about this gigantic environmental issue. The only waste treatment plant that was supposed to convert Shimla town’s municipal waste into energy, is lying defunct. Instead, the locals allege, the plant has been turned into a dumping yard, which was on fire last month. The fire kept smouldering for over a week. 

A similar example was witnessed in Kenduwal of Baddi in Solan district where the Municipal Council and the Baddi-Barotiwala-Nalagarh Development Authority (BBNDA) were supposed to construct a solid waste treatment plant. They had obtained the clearance for the same on August 13, 2015, and were allotted 42 bighas and 13 Biswas of land in Kenduwal. 

However, the plant never came up and the two responsible authorities created a huge dumping site by violating a number of environmental laws and guidelines. Not only they created this site on the flood-plains of Sirsa river but also ignored human habitat located at a distance of 30 meters from it.  The families living in this habitat had to approach the state High Court to get relief from the hellish conditions created by this illegal dumping site. 

 

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Enraged Protesters Barge Into MD HRTC Office Over Poor Bus Services, Leaves Staff Speechless

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Protest at MD HRTC Office

Shimla– After the tragic Banjar bus accident that killed 46 people and left about 37 injured and the school bus accident in Shimla‘s Khalini in which two students and the driver were killed, the Himachal Pradesh Government may have shown some strictness towards overloading, but it forgot to ensure delivery of additional services to facilitate commuters. Protests, especially from the student community are frequently being reported in newspapers and media portals.

Surprisingly, this strictness is limited to Himachal Pradesh Road Corporation buses, while private buses continue to ply overloaded. The public in rural areas is suffering a lot because of this faulty policy of the government. The people complain that even if no one is standing in buses, HRTC conductor or police do not let them board these buses.  The situation has worsened to a level that people are now feeling harassed due to inefficiency and lack of vision of the state government.

The locals from Shimla district had submitted a memorandum regarding the shortage of staff in HRTC and problem they are facing due to suspension of routes without any prior notice to the government through Managing Director, HRTC a couple of days ago. Shockingly, they were not given any response.

Eventually, on Thursday, aggrieved by and enraged over an acute shortage of bus services and harassment in the name of overloading, villagers from various parts of Shimla district gathered at the Old ISBT of Shimla to meet the Managing Director, HRTC. Their anger was fueled as soon as they found that the MD was not present in his office. Led by senior leaders of Communist Party of India (Marxist) including former Mayor of Shimla Town, Sanjay Chauhan and Rakesh Singha, a sitting MLA from Theog Constituency, people sat down outside MD ‘s office and staged an aggressive protest.

Watch How Protesting Locals Left HRTC Staff Speechless


The villagers alleged that while several HRTC routes were suspended in various parts of the district without any prior notice, private buses are encashing on the opportunity by overloading, to which Police is showing a blind eye. The villagers also alleged that in the name of overloading, the passengers are forced out of HRTC buses without provision of adequate services. At the same time, they alleged, the government is allowing overloading in private buses. 

Villagers complained that their vegetable produce is rotting either because the bus routes to their areas were suspended without information or the frequency of HRTC buses plying to the area was reduced to twice or thrice a week. In addition, the problem of not allowing them to load their produce in busses beacuse of the overloading gimmick was just adding to their woes.

Villagers also alleged that school students in rural areas are compelled to miss their classes, even exams due to lack of bus services.

“The number of girl students who have left school and are sitting at home because of the paucity of bus services is in thousands. Their schools are located at a distance of two to three hours, and without bus services, it is not possible for them to travel to schools and back home from schools. These students are dragged out of HRTC buses in the name of overloading but no additional service is provided to them,”

said one of the locals.  

“Biometrics are installed at offices for attendance nowadays. The employees are not able to reach office on time and their attendance is suffering,

said another local present among protestors.   

Later, when the Managing Director arrived at his office and met the protestors, he admitted that HRTC is facing a shortage of drivers and conductors which is adversely affecting bus services in several routes.  The MD agreed to the demand of restoring services on routes where only single buses were plying.

The protestors ended their protest only after the MD assured them to take effective steps to curb the shortage of HRTC bus service. The protestors warned the MD of more aggressive protests if adequate services are not delivered within a week.

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