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Old Age Homes, Facilities for Elderly in Himachal Exist Only On Papers Despite Huge Grant-in-Aid From Centre

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Details of Old Age homes in Himachal PRadesh

Shimla-Himachal Pradesh ranks fourth in terms of the highest population of elderly and senior citizens in the country, say United Nations Population Fund (India) and the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment, India. However, the current and previous state governments have neglected the mandate to deliver services of old age homes and other ancillary facilities. There is no dearth of schemes for elderly and financial grants from the Centre government, but still, the state governments never undertook proper studies of the census to assess the population of the elderly and their needs.  Despite having such a large population of elderly, the state has only one government old age home, which was constructed recently in Shimla. These revelations were made in a petition filed in the State High Court by Advocate Vandana Misra.

After hearing the petition, the State High Court has directed the state government to furnish the details of all the Government run or private old age homes as well as the information, in a tabulated form, of all the cases filed by the senior citizens before the Deputy Commissioners seeking one or the other relief under the Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007. The case is listed for June 11, 2019. 

As per the 2011 census, Himachal has a population of seven lakh who are aged 60 years and above – 10.2% of the state’s total population. This percentage is higher than the national average of 8.6%.

The highest elderly population in the state was mapped in Hamirpur district at 12.8%, followed by Bilaspur at 11.09%, Kangra at 11.7%, and Una at 11.5%. Solan and Sirmaur have the lowest population of elderly persons at 8%.

 According to the information furnished in the petition, between 1991 and 2011, the overall population in the state increased by 37%. The population of senior citizens aged 60 plus increased by a huge margin of 67% and the elderly population of the 80 plus age group increased by a whopping percentage of 87%. This makes the elderly population in the state as the fastest growing age segment as compared to other age groups.

In the petition, the petitioner pointed out that the state government has not undertaken a proper study of the various reports with regard to the census carried out by the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment in June 2016, as well as the study conducted by the UNFP in 2011. Due to these lacunae, they have failed to establish the requisite and proportional number of old age homes where they are most needed in terms of population demographics distributions across various districts. The districts of Hamirpur, Kangra, and Una desperately need old age homes, day care centres, elderly care centres, and physiotherapy units.

Despite a huge amount of grant-in-aid for running and maintenance of old age homes and formulation of schemes, the state government has not done much to establish an adequate number of old age homes and other senior citizen associations, the petitioner said.

There is only one old age home in district Shimla, which was recently set up at Basantpur under the Social Welfare Board, whereas two private senior citizen old age homes have been set up in District Mandi and one in Sirmaur.

As per the petition, the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment in the Centre has formulated the Integrated Programme for Older Persons (IPOP) in 1992. The IPOP scheme of the Central Government provides for the following measures:

  1. Maintenance of old age homes
  2. Maintenance of Respite Care Homes,
  3. Running of Multi Service Centres for Older Persons
  4. Mobile Medicare Unit
  5. Day Care Centre for the care of old persons with Dementia
  6. Multi Faculty Care Centre for older windows
  7. Physiotherapy Clinics
  8. Regional Resources and Training Centers
  9. Helplines and Counseling for Older Persons
  10. Programs for Sensitization of Schools/College students
  11. Awareness projects for older persons
  12. volunteers bureau for older persons
  13. Formation of Vridha Sanghas/Senior Citizens Associations/Self Help Groups.

Based on the IPOP Scheme of the Centre government, the State Department of Social Justice & Empowerment, Himachal Pradesh, also formulated a similar scheme called Integrated Scheme for Older Persons in 2012. The objectives of the scheme were to improve the quality of life and maintain the dignity of older persons by providing basic amenities of life like shelter, food, medical care, entertainment opportunities and encouraging productive & active ageing through NGOs.

However, despite provisions of revised cost norms of financial assistance to existing projects and the addition of several innovative projects such as running of multi-service centre, mobile medicine units, day care centers for persons with dementia, multi-facility care centers for the old, formation of senior citizen associations etc., not much initiative has been shown by the state government to bring fruition to these innovative facilities.

These measures and facilities are existing only on papers and for which grant in aid has been liberally sanctioned by the Centre government. The state government is neglecting to deliver these facilities to the senior citizens of the state for whom these policies were made in the first place, the petition said.  

The petitioner has requested the court to take cognizance of the fact that an adequate number of old age homes and other ancillary services as outlined above have not been provided by the state government, which has only established one old age home under it in Shimla district.

Petitioner requested the court that HP Government and its concerned departments should be directed to:

  1. To set up an adequate number of old age homes, day care centres, helplines and counseling numbers in the state and more particularly taking into consideration the district of Hamirpur, Bilaspur, Kangra and Una, which has the highest proportion of senior citizens.
  2. To provide for services such as multi-services centre for older persons, mobile Medicare units, multi-facility care centres for older windows, the formation of senior citien associations/self help groups as has been mandated by the IPOP scheme.
  3. To provide proper and adequate facilities for food, shelter, clothing etc. in consonance with the parameters prescribed by the ISOP for effective running and maintenance of old age homes and day care centres.
  4. To disseminate information to the public by means of paper publications, flyers, radio, television advertisements to publicize the existence of old age benefit schemes as well as the existence of old age homes so that the senior citizen population is made aware of the existing old age homes of which they can avail services.
  5. To identify and collaborate with NGOs who might be interested and have expertise in establishing and collaborating with the state in the maintenance of old age homes, day care centres and other ancillary services.
  6. To carry out a comprehensive audit of the number and condition of Old Age homes being run by the state as well as private NGOs in the state and submit a report before the court.
  1. Any other activity, which is considered suitable to meet the objective of the scheme

Here it’s pertinent to mention that it’s a matter of paramount importance. Due to varying socio-economic situations, several senior citizens are left with no choice but live in old age homes.

The Petitioner filed a writ petition for infringement of fundamental rights under the Article 21, 41, and 46 of the Constitution of India, which extends provisions of welfare measures to weaker sections of society including senior citizens, who are entitled to a decent and dignified life, shelter, food and all other basic amenities.

Under this Article, it becomes the duty of the state to act as the guardian or parent of such persons under the mandate of “Loco Parentis’. The state is bound to provide for old age homes etc.

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Madan has studied English Literature and Journalism from HP University and lives in Shimla. He is an amateur photographer and has been writing on topics ranging from environmental, socio-economic, development programs, education, eco-tourism, eco-friendly lifestyle and to green technologies for over 9 years now. He has an inclination for all things green, wonderful and loves to live in solitude. When not writing, he can be seen wandering, trying to capture the world around him in his DSLR lens.

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Apple Industry in Himachal Facing a Headwind From an Unlikely Facet

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Apple Season Traffic in Shimla 3

Shimla-Amidst manifest slowdown in the economy, 1.30 lakhs apple growers in Himachal Pradesh are facing a headwind. The problem these apple growers are confronting with may have more to do with town and country planning, rather than esoteric economics principles or concepts.

As the apple season picked up momentum in Shimla district-a major apple belt- the vehicles carrying the produce to the mandis are facing a gridlock. The 55 Km road stretch from Narkanda to Bhatakkafur has become a focal point; last week the stretch encountered a terrible traffic jam and it took 5-6 hours to commute this stretch. This has kept the apple growers on a tenterhook as the traffic jam has precluded their apple produce to reach the fruit mandi in time.

Apple Season Traffic in Shimla 2

More importantly, the more frequent such inordinate delay, the lesser chances that their produce will fetch handsome returns. The predicament has left these growers disgruntled with the administration for want of better traffic management.

This prompted the administration to swing into action with a slew of measures: the vehicles having a token will only be allowed to enter Bhattakufer mandi, such tokens will be made available at Charabra and Koti; a complete  ban on the parking of vehicles along the roadside from Hassan Valley to Bhattakufar and  on Shoghi Taradevi road; the vehicles after unloading the apples at Bhattakufar mandi will have to commute back via Mashobra-Bekhalti road.

Albeit, it’s unlikely these steps will solve the fundamental issues responsible for their woes: the absence of a market yard to cater to the present demand, and relentless increase in the unplanned shops of fruit agents on the roadside.

The decades old fruit mandi at Bhattakufar has failed to withstand the present-day demand as its infrastructure has outlived its utility. 

For long, apple growers associations have been demanding a new commodious market yard equipped with ultra-modern facilities; but it never came. Had the market yard come, it would have not only decongested the traffic on the Hindustan Tibet Road but, also would have catered to the present-day requirements. The apple industry has seen radical changes over the last decade: it’s now technology-driven that brings produce to the market in a glut, creating a bottleneck in the market. 

Seizing this opportunity, a legion of fruit merchant has mushroomed along the Hindustan Tibet Road over the past decade. Initially, much to the delight of apple growers as apple market became competitive fetching growers better return for their products than ever.  But now, these shops have become a bane of commuter and hurting everyone.  

Apple Season Traffic in Shimla

Most of these shops are housed either in the temporary structures or in under-construction buildings. Moreover, these shops are without ample parking space, therefore, loading and unloading are done on the roadside creating congestion on the road and ultimately leading to traffic jams. Also, the situation has transformed into an unnerving concern of road safety.

Apple Season Traffic in Shimla 4

Just travel beyond Theog towards Narkanda, you will find an illustration portraying what chaos such fruit shops have created. Simply, a deracination of Town and Country planning concepts. This haphazard proliferation of fruit shops along the roadside must be stopped, and such construction should be brought under the ambit of the law.

Now with the change of guard in the state, and new government going big and aggressive on attracting private investments. A clamour for a fruit market yard with ultra-modern amenities is apt and congruous with present-day requirements. Going forward, all we need to ensure is that clamour is loud enough and reach the ears that matter. 

Meanwhile, we must keep waiting as it’s unlikely the traffic jams on the Narkanda-Bhatakuffar stretch on Hindustan Tibet Road will go any sooner. And best of worst may be yet to come. Who knows!

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The Curse of NGT Judgment – Undoing of Urban Planning

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Impact of NGT Orders on Shimla City's Development

Shimla– An old ‘common law’ proverb from the British era says “A man’s house is his castle, et domus sua cuique est tutissimum refugium [and each man’s home is his safest refuge]”. This principle, which needs to be strengthened in a free country, is sadly in shambles and perhaps held more truth in the colonial times than it holds now. The level of insecurity a man has with respect to the ownership or for making improvements in his living space/house or building is increasing day by day because of unreasoned judgments of Courts or illogical executive dictates.

In these series of articles (1,2 & 3), the impact of various laws and judgments which have essentially worked for depriving the common citizens in State of H.P, of their ‘Right to Property” will be critically examined.

This article is aimed at academically discussing and pointing out the perversitie and manifest errors in the ‘NGT Judgement’ which was passed on November 16, 2017. The judgment banned all construction activities in the green and core areas and also within 3 meters from national highways. It also restricted the number of stories to two-and-a-half in other areas where construction was permitted to up to 4 to 5 stories.

THE UNHEARD VICTIMS

The Order adversely affects many different categories of people. For instance, a person who has a sanctioned plan in accordance with TCP Law/By-Laws/Rules, who had saved his ‘life savings’ for the construction of his house, is now stuck in limbo, having done nothing wrong. If a man had the approval and sanctioned plan of  ‘four and a half story’ building, which was permitted under TCP law, he is now told that he cannot construct the house in accordance with that initial sanction.

Another man who has his sole plot/property in the core area is prevented from doing anything with it, though he may have buildings on either side of his plot. The significance of the initial sanction and the mandate of the Town and Country Planning Act is bypassed by the Hon’ble Tribunal which is not even competent to decide the matter under such Laws (TCP Act/ MC Act). To add insult to injury, such persons are not even heard or paid compensation before they are so monumentally impacted by the decision.

The Constitution makers bestowed right on every citizen of the country to acquire, hold and dispose of property and  also provided ample safeguards against deprivation of the property by confining such deprivation only on payment of compensation to the expropriated owner. As such, the judgment is against the spirit of Article 300-A of the Indian Constitution.

IMPACTING DEVELOPMENT BY ABSURD AND BLANKET DIRECTION

1. Around 52 ‘Shimla Smart City Projects’, which aim at improving the infrastructural base of the city, are directly impacted by this judgment and are stalled. Such a wide impact of this blanket direction neither can be conceived nor can be expected to be implemented if the city has to grow. Further, such powers were never envisaged under the NGT Act which creates the Hon’ble Tribunal.

2. Another blanket and absurd direction is where the judgment prohibits new construction of any kind, i.e. residential, institutional and commercial in any part of the core area as defined under the various notifications issued under the Interim Development Plan as well by the State Government.

According to the standing laws of the State, the reconstruction in the green areas is permissible on old lines and construction in the core area with the permission of the State Government is also permissible, as per the existing laws (Notification/Statutes). If someone’s house is falling or has become structurally unsafe he should obviously be allowed to reconstruct on old lines, but this is also prevented as a consequence of these directions.    The tribunal has not quashed the relevant notifications which deal with this issue and has said something completely contrary to the existing laws. Now the situation is that we have two sets of laws, which are completely opposite to each other. The Tribunal doesn’t have the power to quash these laws nor interpret them.

3. The most Absurd direction is where the judgment says that beyond core, green and the areas falling within the authorities of the Shimla Planning Area, the constructions may be permitted strictly but not beyond two stories plus attic floor.

According to the law of the land, the construction in the core areas is being regulated by the provisions of the Interim Development Plan for Shimla as amended vide notification dated  28th June’ 2016, which clearly provides that the construction in the core area of Shimla is not story-based but is based upon the  maximum floor area ratio and maximum height of the building which is 1.50 to 1.75 & 21 meters respectively. Similarly, in the non-core areas of Shimla, the maximum floor area ratio is 1.75 & the maximum height of the building is 21 meters. Since the provisions of the Interim Development Plan for Shimla are still in operation, the same are now in conflict with the directions imparted by the Hon’ble Tribunal.

Traumatizing & Patent Illegality of the Judgement

There are numerous errors in the said judgment of the Hon’ble Tribunal, some are legal errors and others are factual errors. The judgment not only enters into a field which is outside its purview, but it also gives a shortsighted vision of its own in the matters of planning and development without comprehending the complexity of the factual problems which exists on the ground.

Though there are many flaws in the judgment, in this first article of the series, some of them have been enumerated as follows:

Firstly, the judgment dated 16.11.2017 has been passed in violation of the principles of natural justice and without giving an opportunity of being heard to those persons who stand adversely affected. The principles of natural justice concern procedural fairness and ensure a fair decision is reached by an objective decision-maker. Maintaining procedural fairness protects the rights of individuals and enhances public confidence in the process. Right of being heard is a right given to those parties who will be adversely affected by the decision. This right is a backbone for a ‘Fair Trial’. Such an important aspect of the judicial proceeding is missing in this case. Numerous persons whose property rights have been taken away have not been heard until now. The judgment should fall on this ground alone.

Secondly, the Tribunal is not even competent, or in other words, has the necessary jurisdiction to hear or decide matters relating to TCP Act or Municipal Corporation Act. The Tribunal is specifically established for matters which relate to ‘Environment’ and laws/Acts which deal with the protection of the same for e.g Environment Protection Act, Water Act, Air Act, etc. The tribunal certainly cannot br expected to interpret TCP Act and MC Act or bypass the mandate of Article 300 A and deprive persons of their houses or stop future government projects which are necessary for effectively implementing State policies.

Thirdly A peculiar problem which has arisen right now is that ‘Town and Country Planning Act’ provisions are not struck down and NGT judgment, which is saying something completely opposite, also stands. It is a rule of thumb that when the Courts have to disagree with a statuary provision for being unconstitutional etc., they will either quash it or read it down. NGT has done none of it, nor it could have done anything in this respect since these two acts are outside its jurisdiction. These acts fall within the jurisdiction of the Hon’ble High Court or the Hon’ble Apex Court.

When the law of the land has not been quashed or struck down, it obviously means that it is still the law of the land and has to be implemented. The judgment seems to be more on the lines of guidelines rather being a dictate or laying down an authoritative pronouncement.

Another fundamental flaw in the judgment is that the Tribunal has traveled way beyond the petition/application and what was prayed by the Applicant who approached it. The Courts, as a rule of practice, are limited to the pleadings which are filed before it, in this case, the Hon’ble Tribunal has gone far beyond the petition which it was deciding. The phrase ‘knight roaming in a shining armor’ is apt for this judgment. Here, the Court has set out to make right all the problems and evils of the State and has done future planning both for urban and rural areas and for the lakhs of inhabitants of such areas.

An important principle which has been forgotten in these blanket directions is ‘Actus curiae neminem gravabit’. The act of the Court shall prejudice no man. (Cumber v. Wane, i Sm. L. C. i ith ed. p. 338.)’.  The number of people who have been condemned unheard is astoundingly large. The livelihood of thousands is at stake, the development of the urban and rural areas of the State is at stake. These people are not criminals, these development plans are not out of the ordinary rather are a necessity for a growing city. The development plans have rightly been drawn by the competent authority under a well-established law. If the law is ‘common sense’ then this sense demands that these directions need a relook. If a law makes lakhs of people in the State as law breakers than there is something wrong with the law itself.

Right to Shelter, Challenges of Providing Housing to the Growing Population

It must be remembered that if everyone is compelled to make two and a half stories or not construct on vacant plots, it would lead to scarcity of housing or it would lead to cutting down of more trees as more land/surface area would be required to construct such houses. To sustain the growing population 4 to 5 storied buildings which if found structurally safe and not impacting the environment were perfectly reasonable and rightly allowed by the TCP/MC laws.

Right to shelter is a fundamental right and right of people to move from rural to urban areas is also a basic right. Both these rights stand defeated if these directions are not quashed. Housing will just become more and more expensive and out of the reach of poor and middle-class families. Old structures won’t be reconstructed, no new constructions will be raised, and no new Government projects can come up. The view of main Shimla town apart from Mall Road, which looks like a ghetto, will always remain like a ghetto.

In case of an earthquake, the chances of survival of the ‘High Court building’ (7 stories) and the ‘Cecil Hotel’ building (9 stories) are way more than the two-storied buildings of  Shimla’s lower bazaar /middle bazaar.  The point is that Morden technology and latest techniques of construction allow us to provide structurally safer buildings than what we had in the past. Further, they can also sustain more population in less surface area of land and fulfill a huge public purpose by doing so. The height of buildings as provided in municipal and TCP laws in accordance with floor to height ratio were reasonably arrived at by the competent authority. The Courts certainly are not equipped nor are expected to venture into this area which is outside their powers and tell us ‘how many stories can be built’, it is certainly the domain of the executive as they have experts with them and also have a better grasp of the ground reality (At least in theory).

The cost of such broad-ranging directions and ideas is very high – particularly on Shimla Town and its housing, making the cost of living and doing business costly and hurting the local enterprises, and thereby, shifting the planned outcomes into a different direction with respect to economic opportunities. The focus of the planning approach has to shift from ‘development restricting’ approach toward ‘development enabling’ approach and it requires finalization of the Developmental plan for the city. It is extremely surprising that Shimla City does not have a final development plan in place to date (this will be discussed elaborately in future articles).

There are numerous other directions and issues relating to the final development plan and some arbitrary TCP Rules such an “non inhabitable attics, no single window clearances and the power of the babus to extort money in passing of plans etc  which will be critically examined in the next article.

Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors. They do not purport to reflect the opinions or views of the Himachal Watcher.

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Dark Sides of Aadhar Amendment Act & Plea to Connect Aadhar With Voter ID

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Dark side of aadhar amendment act and linking it to voter id

Shimla-The September 2018 Aadhar case verdict of the five-judge constitution bench had said that there was nothing in the Aadhaar Act that violated the right to privacy of an individual. The bench headed by the then Chief Justice of India Dipak Misra had also upheld the passage of the Aadhaar Bill as a Money Bill by the Lok Sabha. Against the said judgment a Review was filed and is still pending in the Apex Court.

This month again, a Retired Army officer SG Vombatkere and human rights activist Bezwada Wilson, have filed the petition challenging the constitutional validity of the Aadhaar and Other Laws (Amendment) Ordinance, 2019 and the Aadhaar (Pricing of Aadhaar Authentication Services) Regulations, 2019. The Supreme Court heard the petitioners and issued a notice to the Central Government and Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI).

The petitioners have submitted that the Aadhaar Ordinance created a backdoor entry to private parties to access the Aadhaar eco-system, thus enabling state and private surveillance of citizens. The regulations also permitted the commercial exploitation of personal and sensitive information, collected and stored for state purposes only, they have claimed.

“The Adhaar Ordinance and Regulations are manifestly unconstitutional as they seek to re-legislate the provisions of the Aadhaar Act, 2016 which enabled commercial exploitation of personal information collected for the purposes of the state (by permitting private parties to access the Aadhaar database), which were specifically declared unconstitutional in Supreme Court’s decision dated September 26, 2018, in Justice Puttaswamy v. Union of India,

the petitioners have said.

The petition further submits that through the regulations, the UIDAI has expressly sought to commercialize and gain financially through the large-scale collection of citizens’ private data and the use of Aadhaar database by private entities.  People’s data, which was collected for the Aadhaar database, is their private property and permitting this to be commercialized is an impermissible violation of their dignity under Article 19 and 21 of the Constitution

The Aadhaar Ordinance, according to the petitioners, was promulgated in an improper exercise of the ordinance-making power of the President under Article 123. The President of India Ram Nath Kovind promulgated the Aadhaar Ordinance on March 3, 2019, after the Aadhaar bill lapsed due to the dissolution of 16thLok Sabha.

LINKING OF AADHAR WITH VOTER ID 

Two hundred public-spirited individuals have written a letter to the Election Commission of India (ECI) to warn against the dangers contained in a petition before the Delhi High Court seeking an e-voting system using fingerprint and face biometrics and for that purpose, linking Aadhaar numbers with voter IDs. The high court has issued directions in Ashwini Kumar Upadhyay vs Union of India, asking the Election Commission of India (ECI) to consider the plea within eight weeks.

Urging the ECI to seek a dismissal of the Upadhyay petition, the individuals said that Aadhaar linkage would harm the right to vote that Indian citizens have under our democracy, flowing from the Constitution and the Representation of People’s Act, 1951.

While the Representation of People’s Act, 1951 currently limited universal adult suffrage to Indian citizens (including non-resident Indians (NRIs) still holding an Indian passport), the letter pointed out that under Section 9 of the Aadhaar Act, 2016, the Aadhaar number or authentication did not constitute proof of citizenship. Therefore, “linking of Aadhaar number with voter ID would effectively be an exercise involving significant public expense and yielding no benefit whatsoever in determining the genuineness of voters”.

Warning that the linking would not just “weaken and contaminate” the Indian electoral system but also harm the functioning of our democracy, the individuals reminded the ECI of the many instances where Aadhaar IDs had been found with non-nationals or there had been blatantly incorrect and fake enrolments.

“We also ask the Hon’ble Commission to recollect the disastrous outcome of the previous exercise of Aadhaar-Voter ID linking conducted as part of the National Electoral Roll Purification and Authentication Program (NERPAP) in 2015, due to which at least 30 lakh voters disenfranchised. As that exercise demonstrates, carrying out timely door-to-door verification of voters is as yet the most effective method of updating electoral rolls and ensuring accuracy of voter data,”

they said.

“We would like to point out that not only does possess an Aadhaar number fail to qualify the number holder’s eligibility to vote, biometric-linked authentication would, on the contrary, disenfranchise many rightful voters, in particular, the elderly, manual labourers, and those living in areas suffering a lack of electric power and/or network coverage,”

the letter said.

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