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Climate change & energy crisis: Is it time to reconsider nuclear energy?

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nuclear energy

nuclear energy

In the 21st century, human kind is struggling to escape a self-created double edged blade, which is getting sharper with each day. It’s the blade of catastrophe, the duo of energy crisis and climate change. The world needs energy and it’s getting it but at a great cost. Burning fossil fuels supplied the major part. While the present emission levels strictly prohibit anymore burning to avoid irreversible damages of ‘climate change’, the energy requirement of the world is rising simultaneously, asking to burn every bit of it or anything that could produce energy. Because, now the world can’t do without it.

Renewable energy resources look the greenest option, but presently, available technologies can’t make best of it to supply energy good enough to replace fossil fuels. The present technologies used in the development of photovoltaic, wind turbines, hydro-turbines, bio-fuels, fuel cell etc. are still developing and aren’t efficient enough to fill the gap. On the other hand, the battery technologies are struggling for larger storage capacities. In a way, both the production and storage of the energy produced through renewable sources of energy aren’t in position to put the world completely off the traditional grid. It’ll take years, but it might be too late at that point of time. What we need is an immediate replacement with zero-emission. Presently, there is only one solution, which is most promising, but comes with great hazards and criticism. It’s the irony of present civilization that nuclear power is the best option, but isn’t completely safe. Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters have already demonstrated the horrors of nuclear radiations.

But, as a matter of fact, nuclear power is the world’s largest source of emission-free energy. Nuclear power plants produce no air pollutants, such as sulfur and particulates, or greenhouse gases. The use of nuclear power in place of other energy sources helps to keep the air clean, preserve the Earth’s climate, avoid ground-level ozone formation and prevent acid rain. Nuclear power has important implications for our national security. Inexpensive nuclear power, in combination with fuel cell technology, could significantly reduce our dependency on foreign oil.

Recently, in November 2013, an open letter from renowned climate and energy scientists again flared the debate on the use of nuclear power to tackle both energy crisis and climate change. These four climate experts included James Hansen, former NASA scientist-turned-activist, Ken Caldeira of the Carnegie Institution for Science, climatologist Tom Wigley, and Kerry Emanuel of MIT. The letter proposed development and deployment of “safer nuclear energy systems.” They laid emphasis on reconsidering the use of nuclear power in light of the newer, safer technologies like ‘Fast Reactor’. The four of the best experts admit that presently it’s not possible to save the world through any single source. The world need a mix of energy and nuclear power is the best candidate in their view. So, now, it’s time to ask the same old question about testing of nuclear power. Is right or wrong to start testing nuclear energy with newer technologies or not? Should governments refrain from using nuclear energy in a time when countries like France, China, an Korea have managed to squeeze the same source efficiently along with reducing a great lot of emissions?

Much controversy has already emanated regarding the issue of nuclear power. As time draws on, many people are concerned that at some point the world oil supply will vanish and we will have to compensate for its loss by using an alternative power source. Some people predict that this event will occur early in the twenty first century and for this reason, the question has been raised about what alternative power source we will use. Nuclear power seems to be a popular choice with many people, and many people believe that nuclear power is inexpensive and creates no air pollution.

However, while this may be true, it is also evident that the radioactivity released during accidents at nuclear power plants has caused many deaths and environmental damage. Thus, a number of people are opposed to nuclear power; execrate the use of nuclear power, its use in our society and at the Western Nuclear Power Industry in particular. In my opinion, nuclear power should be banned and there are many risks taken when nuclear power is used. For one thing, there is always the risk that a meltdown or reactor leakage could occur.

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Furthermore, there are also problems in storing waste from nuclear reactors, the issue of thermal pollution and concerns about worker safety and security. There is the possibility that nuclear reactors will experience a ‘melt down’ where the cooling systems fail and nuclear fuel reaches such a temperature, that it melts away through the reactor or causes damage to reactor walls. This allows the spread of radioactivity, a lethal thing, which can not only pollute the environment but cause cancers and sickness to occur within humans.

Besides from a ‘melt down’ causing the spread of radioactivity, there is also the fear that radioactive wastes from reactors will escape into the environment and contaminate it with radioactivity. Radioactivity is definitely not an issue to be taken lightly. Radiation also had a disastrous effect on many children, with deformations such as “club feet”, “hair lips”, oversized skulls and missing body parts occurring, and there are such cases in India near the nuclear power stations.

deformation due to radiation]
Apart from the serious health problems, the environment also suffered with fish being poisoned and other animals dying. Perhaps the worst thing about radiation is that it doesn’t disappear within a short time. In fact, it is known that radiation can remain within the soil for up to a million years, and still have an effect upon animals and humans.

New Zealand Leggy Lamb

Imagine the risks radiation could pose if it happened to leak out and spread over our community. It would be such a disaster; simply unimaginable to some people. We can’t put ourselves, and yet alone our children at risk to this hideous substance.

In the future, the world might succeed in developing advance and safer nuclear power plants, and may be, we will gain access to the abundant pool of nuclear energy, but till then, what we need to worry about is the energy wastage and emissions. Presently, the solution lies in using combination of all available alternative sources, and somehow cut the consumption of fossil fuels. After all, the energy crisis and climate change are nearer than they appear.

Article contribution by:Amisha Singh Thakur

Environment

Himachal Gets First Fully Automated ‘Doppler Weather Radar’, Would Provide More Accurate Short Range Forecast

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Dopper Weather Radar in Himachal Pradesh's Kufari

Shimla-India Meteorological Department (IMD) January 15, 2021, celebrated its 146th Foundation Day. IMD is one of the oldest, scientific service organizations in the country, in existence well before Independence.

On the occasion, Dr. Harsh Vardhan inaugurated Doppler Weather Radars at Mukteshwar, Uttarakhand and Kufri, Himachal Pradesh; Multi-Mission Meteorological Data Receiving and Processing System in IMD in collaboration with ISRO (MMDRPS).

According to the IMD, these modernized Radars would give a more specific short-range weather forecast.

It’s pertinent to mention that accurate and advance weather information is of utmost importance to Himachal Pradesh – a state largely dependent on agriculture and tourism.

The one installed in Kufari, Shimla, is Indigenous dual polarised X-Band Doppler Weather Radar. Two more Radars would be installed at Mandi and Dalhousie in Chamba district of the State. A site had already been finalized at Mandi and a site for Radar at Dalhousie would be finalized soon, the State Government informed.

This specific type of Radar uses the Doppler effect to gather velocity data. The Radar transmits a signal, which gets reflected when hits a raindrop. Based on the changes in the frequency of the reflected signal, data is obtained about the motion of droplets and intensity of the precipitation. Scientists can analyze this data to determine the structure and severity of storms.

Radar installed at Kufri is on test mode for a period of two weeks. Thereafter its data would be used for forecasting purposes. This Radar has a range upto 100 kilometres in radial distance. It would observe and provide the weather data of 100 kilometres in all directions, which would be used for forecasting purpose, especially for the short-range forecast. More précised area-specific weather forecast and warning can be issued for a particular place, for the weather phenomenon like thunderstorm, lighting, hailstorm, heavy rainfall/snowfall, gusty winds etc.    

This Centre would help the horticulturists and farmers of the State by providing them with accurate weather information.

The DWR Kufri would run round the clock and it is fully automatic. It would transmit the data in various digital format and picture form.

 Forecasting monsoons is the lifeline to India’s food security and affect the economy as the nation’s GDP is dependent on agriculture. Moreover, weather prediction is critical to reducing the loss of lives from various extreme events like a cyclone, heavy rain, thunderstorm, heatwave and cold wave, monsoonal floods and droughts.

India Meteorological Department says that it is modernizing its observational network in the Central and Western Himalayas by the installation of Doppler Weather Radars in a phased manner, at different locations.

IMD said that this radar will be providing severe weather information to the weather forecasters, thus, improving the safety of the public in the states of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh. It will also provide support to the disaster managers and the pilgrims undertaking the pilgrimage to Kailash Manasarovar and Char Dham yatra. 

 

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The GHNP and Tirthan Wildlife Sanctuary Ranked as Best Managed Protected Areas of India

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MEE Rank himachal pradesh GHNP

Shimla-The Great Himalayan National Park and Tirthan Wildlife Sanctuary (WLS) have been ranked as the best managed protected areas in India. Sainj WLS has also been placed among the top five Sanctuaries.

Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Prakash Javadekar, on January 11 released Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE) of 146 National Park and Wildlife Sanctuaries in the Country. At present, India has a network of 903 Protected Areas in the country covering about 5% of the total geographic area of the country. The purpose of it was to assess the efficacy of Protected Areas, evaluation of management effectiveness.

The evaluation process was executed by the Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, in which  nation-wide 146 National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries, including 13 protected areas of Himachal Pradesh, were assessed through a team of evaluators. The score is given for various parameters including staff position, provision of financial resources, degree of protection, peoples’ participation and awareness of the communities towards the conservation values. Against a national average of 62 percent GHNP and Tirthan WLS scored a high of 84.17 percent while Sainj recorded 82.5 percent.

Currently, Himachal Pradesh has a network of 5 National Parks, 28 Wildlife Sanctuaries and 3 Conservation Reserves covering 8391.42 km2 which is 15 percent of the total geographical area of the state.

Top five and bottom five scored NP&WLS

Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE) of 146 National Park and Wildlife Sanctuaries in India 2

Source: MEE Evaluation Report

According to this Evaluation three of the top five best managed Protected Areas in the country are from Himachal Pradesh. However, the Evaluation also mentioned weaknesses in management in these National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. (Scroll down for details info)

Top two highest and lowest scored NP&WLS in five regions

Managemaent Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE) of 146 National Park and Wildlife Sanctuaries in India

Source: MEE Evaluation Report

What is Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE)?

Protected area (PA) management effectiveness evaluation (MEE) is defined as the assessment of how well NP&WLS are being managed—primarily, whether they are protecting their values and achieving the goals and objectives agreed upon.

The term ‘management effectiveness’ reflects three main themes of PA management -design issues relating to both individual sites and PA systems, the adequacy and appropriateness of management systems and processes, and delivery of the objectives of NP&WLS, including conservation of values.

 Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE) of Protected Areas (PAs) has emerged as a key tool for PA managers and is increasingly being used by governments and international bodies to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the protected area management systems.

MEE is a very important document that provides valuable guidance on various aspects of wildlife and protected area expand MEE of Marine Protected Areas. A new framework for MEE of Marine Protected Areas has been also jointly prepared by WII and MoEF&CC.

In recent years there has been a general concern amongst PA professionals and the public that many NP&WLS are failing to achieve their objectives and, in some cases, are actually losing the values for which they were established (Hockings et al. 2008).

As a result, improving the effectiveness of PA management has become a priority throughout the conservation community. Protected areas that are effectively managed generally lead to improved biodiversity outcomes.

However, only 20% (21,743 NP&WLS) of the total coverage of protected areas reported in the WDPA has been assessed for management effectiveness according to the Global Database on Protected Areas Management Effectiveness (UNEP-WCMC, IUCN and NGS 2018). The result indicated that only 17.5% of the countries have achieved the 60% score of management effectiveness (Coad et al. 2015).

Further, Javadekar also announced that from this year onwards 10 best National Parks, 5 coastal and Marine parks and top five Zoos in the country will be ranked and awarded every year.

Management Strengths and Weaknesses of National Parks and Wild Life Sanctuaries in Himachal Pradesh

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Environment

Himachal Bans Import of Poultry Products from Other States, Migratory Bird Death Toll Reaches 4324

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Poultry ban in himachal pradesh

Shimla-Import of poultry products to Himachal Pradesh from other States has been banned for a week, the State Government informed today. The step was taken in order to ensure that the Bird Flu (Avian Influenza) infection does spread from other States through poultry products.   

According to the Government, the “Bird Flu death toll” for migratory birds has reached 4324. The Government said that about 65 rapid response teams of Animal Husbandry and Wild Life departments were regularly monitoring the Pong Dam and adjoining areas. It said that keeping in view the intensity of Bird Flu, samples of poultry have been sent to RDDL Jalandhar by Animal Husbandry Department. 

Further, recently 1000 dead domestic poultry birds were found dumped in Dharampur Sub Division of Solan district, which were disposed of by deep burial and area was being sanitized as per protocol, it was informed. Samples of these dead birds have been sent to RDDL Jallandhar for diagnosis.

Further, it was informed that 215 other birds were also found dead in various parts of the State till date.

Officers have been asked to keep a strict vigil on birds alongside reservoirs and people to sensitize about proper handling of poultry products.

The Government has requested the people to inform the Animal Husbandry and Wild Life Departments if any dead bird is found in their areas.

Bird Flu Confirmed in 10 States

According to the official statement released by the Government of India, till January 11, 2021, Avian Influenza was confirmed in 10 states of the country. ICAR- NIHSAD has confirmed death of crows and migratory/wild birds in Tonk, Karauli, Bhilwara districts of Rajasthan; and Valsad, Vadodara and Surat districts of Gujarat. Further, death of crows was confirmed in Kotdwar and Dehradun districts of Uttarakhand. In Delhi, crows and ducks, respectively, were reported dead in New Delhi and Sanjay lake areas.

Additionally, an outbreak of Avian influenza has been among poultry in Parbhani district where 800 hens died of the Flu. Also, the Flu is confirmed from Mumbai, Thane, Dapoli, Beed in crows in Maharashtra.

Culling of Infected Birds Underway in Haryana

In Haryana, culling of infected birds is underway for the control and containment of the spread of the disease. A Central team has visited Himachal Pradesh and will reach Panchkula on 11 January 2021 for carrying out monitoring the epicentre sites and conducting epidemiological investigation.

States have been requested to build awareness among the public and avoid the spread of misinformation. States/ UTs have been requested to increase surveillance around water bodies, live bird markets, zoos, poultry farms, etc. along with proper disposal of carcasses and strengthening of bio-security in poultry farms.

The States have been asked to maintain adequate stock of PPE kits and accessories required for culling operations, Secretary, DAHD, requested.

Feature Photo: unsplash@relentlessjpg

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