SHIMLA-For the last couple of years, HW tried to bring the attention of Govt. and the public towards continuous tree abuse in Shimla by HPSEB , the public, advertisers, cable operators etc.,but the major share of contribution comes from HPSEB. The trees are strangled with metal wires, and iron rods and nails are hammered into their trunk, which causes a great harm to the trees. A tree eventually dies or doesn’t grow properly. But, the DFO at Shimla MC, HPSEB, Forest Department, and the public couldn’t get any clue about what HW has been talking about, why we have been continuously protesting against the tree abuse all over the Shimla city, and why we regularly keep roaming like abandoned jerks, clicking nails and wires on trees. Here comes the importance of education. Therefore, we thought of revising the botany basics that each of us learned during the high school science classes. In nutshell, we will discuss how it harms a tree if we strangle it with wires, hammer nail or iron rods into it, and why these practices must be discouraged.
Wires obstruct the Plant Transportation System
Its an scientifically established fact that the all plants are categorized as living things. The plant transportation system is the internal mechanism of supplying water and nutrients from roots to all other parts of the tree. Not exactly, but this transportation system is somewhat similar to that of a human body: the blood carries oxygen and other food components to different parts of the body.
The first layer of the tree body is called bark. Right under the bark, there is a layer of tissues which is called Cambium, the area just beneath the bark where cells divide and is responsible for the increase tree girth. Then comes two most important passages xylem and phloem. Xylem is responsible for carrying water and minerals to the leaves where it creates its food through photosynthesis. Phloem is a translocating vessels that facilitate the movement of the food components to the growing stems or the storage tissues. The life and growth of a tree completely depends upon the uninterrupted service of this transportation system.
Now, all this operation takes place inside the tree trunk. When a metal wire is tightly wrapped around the trunk and it stays there for a prolonged period of time, the tree trunk grows around it and the wire penetrates the two important passages, xylem and phloem as the diameter of the tree trunk widens. As a result of that, either a portion of the tree above the point where the wire penetrated don’t receive the supply of water and minerals or same happens to some specific part of the gradually growing tree. The upper portion or the tree either dries or it doesn’t grow to its full capacity. So, in a way, it’s similar to cutting the veins in a human body or like choking by wrapping a tight wire around the neck. It does a great harm to a tree with irreversible damages.
How nails damage a tree?
The thickness of the bark decides how much damage a nail of a particular size could do to a tree if it’s hammered into it. If a nail is long enough to penetrate through the bark, it reaches the two transportation vessels, xylem and phloem. When the nail corrodes, dissolved metals makes it toxic. The damage is maximum if the metal happens to be highly reactive like copper where the chemical reaction will oxidize the metal, leaving a very fetal toxic that flows to the whole tree through the two vessels and ensures that the tree or some particular part of it dries gradually. If not killed, it weakens the tree, and in a weakened stage, the tree may die from other stress such as heavy rains, snowfall, drought etc.
If not this way, then hammering a nail can harm a tree in the same way as a open wound of a nail would do to a human body. The tree trunk is opened for infections and the entry of foreign pathogenic agents like fungi. If the tree fails to develop sufficient immunity against such infections, the whole tree could eventually dry.
For the sake of human life and chainsaw
The deep embedded nail, rod or metal wire, which eventually disappears into tree trunk and no more visible to human eye, could result in mishaps as well. If you search the web, you’ll come across incidents where people lost their limbs or reported serious injuries after the chainsaw bounced back on the victims after striking against the metal nails, rods and metal wires inside the tree-trunk. It also causes damage to the equipments. So, it’s better to check such practices when we know that sooner or later every tree is going to be axed,especially if the government and the public continued to maintained their passiveness towards this highly sensitive issue of tree abuse and intentional deforestation.
We hope, now it’s comprehensible enough for DFO Shimla MC, HPSEB, and the public, who believe that hammering nails or strangling tight wires doesn’t do any damage to a tree. HW is continuously making efforts to stop this practice and get the nails, iron rods, collars, and metal wires etc. removed as soon as possible.
How you can help
If you come across such trees in your area which either have metal wires wrapped around them or you see nails/rods/collars hammered into them, then please do report it to either DFO or click a few photographs with your mobile and forward them to HW with their locations. We will make sure that these trees are saved. So, next time, don’t ignore it, do report it. We all share the responsibility to keep the earth green and save precious trees.
Govt Legitimizing and Legalizing Environmental Violations for Business by Amending EIA Rules: Activists
Shimla-While in statements, the politicians in power at the Centre and State Governments have been expressing concerns over environmental issues and ensuring the people that they are committed to protect and preserve the environment, the reality is contrary to it. The most recent evidence is the proposed 2020 draft amendments to the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) Notification. With these amendments, the process of environmental assessment before granting permission to execute commercial projects, like hydropower projects in Himachal Pradesh, would be reduced to merely a formality.
Environmental activists and people’s organisations from across Himachal have written to the Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) to scrap the 2020 draft amendments to the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) Notification proposed by it.
These activists and environmental protection groups are of the opinion that the EIA Notification, first issued in 1994 under the Environment Protection Act 1986, is a critical mechanism that regulates clearances granted to all kinds of development projects and economic activities in the country. It is one of the environmental decision-making processes that makes it mandatory for project developers to not just study the socio-economic, ecological and other impacts of a proposed project but also place them in front of the affected communities for their opinions and objections, thus, ensuring the process of a free, fair and informed consent. However, this notification has been amended and read down several times in the last two decades, in favour of ‘easing the norms’ for business. The latest draft continues to move in the direction of rendering the EIA process a mere formality.
The submission made by HP groups states,
“In the context of the already vulnerable and sensitive Himalayan region, flouting of various provisions of even the present EIA notification has heavily impacted the local ecology and livelihoods of the people. The new amendments will only legitimize and legalize these violations and this will mean irreparable damage to the Himalayan ecosystem”.
The key objections raised are around exemptions of a variety of projects from the mandatory ‘Public Consultation’ process as well as the dismantling of this process itself.
“The reduction of the time prior to public hearing from 30 to 20 days is also highly objectionable. In the given 30 day period itself, the information about Public hearings does not reach all the affected areas which are often spread out widely in case of mountains with some project-affected communities residing in remote and inaccessible terrains. Here accessing information takes a long time and reducing this time to 20 days will completely exclude such people from raising their grievances and suggestions in the public consultation. This is a clear attempt to block their participation in the environmental decision-making process”
said R.S Negi of Him Lok Jagriti Manch, Kinnaur.
“It is shocking that the amendments include allowing post-facto clearance, which means that the project proponent can start work and before they have obtained environmental clearance. If the basic precautionary principle on which the EIA notifications is grounded is itself not followed it can lead to a disastrous situation for the ecology and local people. In this situation who is going to be responsible for the losses? If the project proponent is not in a position to pay for losses, will the MoEF&CC take the responsibility of losses? This provision will encourage project developers to bypass the process of environmental decision making. We absolutely oppose this amendment”,
said Prakash Bhandari of Himdhara Collective.
The 2020 draft also dilutes the guidelines for monitoring and compliance of Environment conditions.
“Already the system of monitoring is weak, the conditions lose, the pollution control board and companies non-accountable, thus, leading to widespread destruction of local ecology and impacting health, lives, and livelihoods of project-affected communities. In the case of hydropower projects, for instance, the illegal and unmonitored dumping of muck along river beds, in forests and on common lands, has damaged pastures, disrupted the flow of the rivers, and caused massive disasters when floods occur. The proposed changes will give a free reign to those profiting from extractive and polluting projects,”
according to Kulbhushan Upmanyu of Himalaya Bachao Samiti.
It is ironic that on one hand, the global COVID crisis has thrown up several studies showing that pandemics like COVID emerge from ecological degradation and forest loss, and on the government is pushing for policy changes which will accentuate the environmental crisis that the country is already reeling under.
“If the MoEF&CC wants to change the environmental laws, it should carry out countrywide regional consultations”,
added Uma Mahajan of Himachal Van Adhikar Manch.
The country, especially ecologically diverse yet climate-vulnerable regions like the Himalayas need a robust and strong environmental regulatory and governance regime that makes project proponents accountable and keeps the affected communities and ecological concerns at the centre of the EIA and environmental decision-making process.
Notably, MoEF&CC had called for citizen’s comments before May 11 but this deadline was extended upto June 30 and now August 11 as environmentalists and concerned groups expressed outrage that calling for public inputs on this critical law amidst the COVID led lockdown was unjustified. The MoEF&CC has in this period received thousands of objections highlighting the new draft as anti-people and environment.
The demand is to scrap these proposed amendments for the sake of the environment.
Submission Made to Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change by Activists and Organizations
SC’s Forest Diversion Regulation a Blockade on Forest Rights Act Implementation in Himachal: Himdhara
Shimla–Himdhara Collective, a Himachal-based environment research and action group, has released a report on the implications of the regulation imposed by the Supreme Court on forest diversion under the Forest Rights Act 2006 in Himachal, through a series of orders passed last year. This brought to a screeching halt the implementation of Section 3(2) of the FRA which grants powers to gram sabhas and Divisional Forest Officers to divert upto 1 hectare of forest land for 13 types of village welfare activities like roads, schools, community centres, PDS shops etc.
The court orders were based on the conclusions drawn by a Supreme Court Monitoring Committee, headed by a retired PCCF, V.P Mohan, that the diversions were leading to green felling and deforestation in the state. Initially, a stay was imposed on all green felling in the state (in a matter of forest diversions under FCA 1980 and FRA 2006) on 11th March 2019. This stay was partially relaxed but the Supreme court sought all FRA proposals to be brought before it for further diversion.
The report titled ‘Missing the forest for Trees’, assesses the ground reality behind the conclusions drawn by the Supreme Court Monitoring Committee based on which these diversions have been restricted.
“We have found that the Supreme court’s orders need to be reviewed because the alarm raised by the V.P Mohan committee with regard to FRA was a false one”,
stated authors of the report which is based on analysis of RTI information as well as field research.
RTI data sought from the Forest department for all cases under section 3(2) of the Forest Rights Act 2006 from 2014 to 2019 (up to January 2019), was analysed to reveal that 17237 trees were felled in an area of 887.56 hectares for 1959 activities in 41 of the 45 forest divisions of the state.
Roads, followed by schools and community centres dominate the type of activities carried out. Of the total land diverted 91% is for roads. It was found that almost 64% of these diversions showed ‘nil’ trees felled. The average number of trees felled per hectare is very low (19.52) and it may be induced that most activities have been carried out in areas with open forest or no trees.
Rohru (Shimla), Nachan(Mandi), Kinnaur and Chopal were some of the divisions which had a large number of diversions, again mostly for roads.
Case studies we carried out in Mandi and Kangra district showed the desperate need for amenities like village link roads and schools. In Himachal, there remain about 41% villages that have no road connectivity which affects access to health, education and market centres.
On the other hand, large development activities like four lane highways, hydropower projects and transmission lines, have had a much larger ecological footprint in terms of tree loss in the state compared to the very minute, incomparable diversions under FRA.
The report also finds that as far as green cover is concerned in the period corresponding to the high number of forest diversions under FRA (2015-2019), the forest survey of India’s statistics show a 333 sq.km increase in the forest cover.
Why development rights under FRA important for Himachal?
1.No Land available with revenue departments and panchayats for ‘welfare activities’ thus forest land only option
The report concludes that given the fact that 2/3rd of the geographical area of the state is recorded ‘forest area’ where strict forest laws have restricted non-forest use, the FRA provides relief for communities to access basic welfare facilities, which should be seen as their fundamental right and therefore should not be hindered.
2.Cumbersome, costly and lengthy process under FCA 1980
Before FRA it was the Forest Conservation Act, 1980 which governed forest diversion even for small local development activities. This required not only permission from the Central Government (MoEFCC Regional or Delhi Office) but also warranted that user agencies deposit funds (Net Present Value of trees) to carry out Compensatory Afforestation. The whole diversion process under FCA was cumbersome, lengthy and costly, and thus a major hurdle in providing the rural areas, especially remote areas, access to basic welfare development facilities.
“The section 3(2) of the FRA provides relief for both governmental departments and local communities as it overrides the FCA and puts in place a simple and decentralized process for diversion”states the report.
3.FRA is meant to correct the problems that were posed by strict central forest laws
The Forest Rights Act was passed by the parliament of India in 2006 recognising that across the country there are lakhs of communities dependent on land which is legally categorised as ‘forest land’ and are unable to exercise their basic livelihood and development rights due to extremely strict forest laws. Under this act’s Section 3(1), forest-dependent communities can file claims for their individual and community rights exercised before the cut-off date of 13th December 2005.
“As it is Himachal has been sluggish with FRA implementation and only 136 titles have been issued under section 3(1). But atleast the government was proactive with the implementation of section 3(2). With the Supreme court orders regulating this provision, there seems to be an impression amongst the implementing agencies and officials that there is an over-all blockade on FRA in the state”
added members of the collective.
The report has recommended that the state government and nodal agency for the Act – the Central Ministry of Tribal Affairs, put forth the case in favour of section 3(2) of the FRA strongly in front of the Supreme Court and also move swiftly to ensure implementation of all provisions of this law in Himachal.
HP Govt Exempts Use of Plastic Straws Attached with Beverages for 6 Months
Shimla: The use of integrated plastic straws attached with tetra pack of beverages are exempted temporarily for a period of six months in Himachal Pradesh, informed a spokesperson of the state government on January 31, 2020.
He informed that the exemption would be a subject to the implementation of Action Plan submitted by M/s Tetra Pack India Pvt. Ltd., AARC under Extended Producer Responsibility.
During the relaxation period, the manufacturers and producers are to come out with an alternative to plastic straw, which is bio-degradable, he informed. A notification in this regard has been issued recently.
He said that other provisions of the notification issued by Department of Environment, Science and Technology of HP on September 20, 2019, which imposes complete ban on plastic cutlery such as spoons, bowls, katories, stirring sticks, forks, knives, straws made of plastic, would remain banned.
He said that this notification will come into force with immediate effect.
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