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Response to Shimla STPI cleanliness drive depicts poor psycho-social conditioning

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The civic body is required to conduct extensive surveys to assess the causes of littering behaviour, study the psycho-social aspects associated with lack of awareness that encourages littering.

Shimla: On last Saturday, the Software Technology Park of India, located at the SDA Complex in Kasumpti, Shimla, made a call for the cleaning of the building premises, which houses 12 information technology and software companies. It was part of the Swacchta Pakhwada organized by the government from time to time. 

Some of the employees of Flexinet Technologies Pvt. Ltd, who are also the Community Members of Himachal Watcher, were also present. So, it was an excellent moment to observe the nature and effect of psycho-social conditioning of all persons employed with various offices and their respective bosses/company owners.

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The total number of employees in all offices including the STPI staff exceeds 250.  Majority of the employees are educated including males and females aged between 20 -40 years. These employees included natives from almost all districts of Himachal.

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The available data and conditions make it a perfect sample for a sort of survey that could be conducted with a qualitative method. In fact, let us consider that the number of participants was (n = 250). It was a random sample.

Location

The location chosen was the STPI block (24). There are total 12 companies/offices in the block, namely 31 Parallel, Covenant Info Solution,  NIELIT,  Kaith Group of Technologies, Himachal Pradesh Kaushal Vikas Nigam, Saraswati Dot Com, Himachal Media Pvt, Flexinet Technologies Solutions, Netgen IT Solution, Zasaya, and Snowmicro.

Conditions

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The area around the premises was badly littered around by the same employees. The bottles of whisky and beer, plastic packaging of online stores and snacks, packets of cigarette etc., were littered all over the place. If that was not enough, some offices had disposed of window glasses, marble tiles, and debris of concrete generated after renovations.

The most recent renovation was conducted by the office of Kaushal Vikas Nigam, housed at the second floor of the block. Prior to that, 31 Parallel, a BPO, had undertaken some renovation work.

To the demise of nature-lovers, all this construction waste including broken glasses was disposed of near the building instead of proper disposal.

The parking lot was full of potholes.

The cleaning was an arduous and risky affair due to the glass pieces disposed of with waste, broken bottles, and a steep slope.

 Literature Review

Shimla city is the capital of Himachal Pradesh and was known for its greenery, pure breathable air, and a serenity that its hills used to offer. Currently, Shimla city is heading towards an ugly future as the district administration and Municipal Corporation are in deep slumber. The Shimla’s civic body is the first one in India to implement the door-to-door garbage collection facility. A special body ‘Shimla Heritage, Environment and Beautification (SHEB) Society exists for the purpose of sanitation and solid waste management. Unfortunately, the civic body and SHEB Society are busy in a tug of war over the long-pending demands of the SHEB workers for regularisation. The sanitation work is mismanaged to such an extent that the SMC has allowed its workers to burn daily garbage all over Shimla – a grieve and deliberate violation of the Air (Prevention and Control) Act, 1981.

Sub-section (5) of Section 19 of the Air Pollution Act empowers the State Government after consultation with the state Board to prohibit the burning of any material (not being fuel) in any air pollution control area or part thereof, which may cause or likely to cause air pollution.    

In April 2015, a bench headed by NGT Chairperson Justice Swatanter Kumar, in a judgment, had clearly stated:

It is on the record before us that burning of garbage and other materials is not only source of air pollution but forms 29.4 per cent of air pollution with reference to PM10. The burning of material also causes serious respiratory problems and are even carcinogenic….There shall be complete prohibition on burning of any kind of garbage, leaves, waste, plastic, rubber or any such other materials in open areas.

The bench had further directed,

We direct that for every incident of burning of such material, the person who is actually found burning or responsible for burning would be liable to pay compensation in terms of Section 15 of the National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 under the principle of polluter pays.

The SMC is supposed to ensure proper disposal of garbage but, here in Shimla, the body is itself burning garbage daily. Except for the core or VIP areas, sanitation in the urban Shimla is only worsening with the passage of time.  

The jungles and slopes of Shimla are being buried beneath garbage and illegally dumped muck.  As far as the matter of over-construction is concerned, most of us, we are sure, would be aware of the situation.

The people, even the highly educated, don’t mind littering. It implies that our education system is not focusing on moral education and environmental awareness and its protection.

Moreover, the words such as a ‘vision’ or ‘planning’ are alien to our bureaucrats.

Methodology

Without any safety guidelines or accessories like gloves and masks, these participants were given a common verbal stimulus in the form of a call for the drive to clean their own work environment where they spend most of the time daily.

Results

At about 1:30 PM out of those hundreds of employees, not more than 30 were present on the spot. It implies, only 30 subjects responded to the stimulus including only two girls. Almost 50 percent of these 30 came ahead only after seeing the remaining 15 already engaged in cleaning.

SDA Complex cleaning

The STPI staff filled some of the potholes while some others were only partly covered.   

It is no co-incident that the boss/employer of these girls was also present with them, which motivated them.

Most respondents belonged to the 31 Parallel followed by Flexinet. Only two offices did not take part in the drive.  

Observations

This group did a fantastic job. Watching each other working diligently kept them motivated.

Out of approximately 100 females, only two girls were visible taking part in this small cleaning drive. Both of the girls are employed with the Flexinet. Interestingly, one of the girls, who had resigned a few days ago to pursue her studies, came back especially to join her ex-colleagues in the drive.

While the bunch of concerned people cleaned the premise, all girls chose to be onlookers, gossiping with sarcastic giggles. One of the girls was even seen taking a selfie.

It is a matter of contemplation as to why 98 percent of girls felt reluctant to join the doers’ camp.

As expected, only the owner and bosses of the Flexinet and Zasaya got their hands dirty to collect the kaleidoscopic garbage without any protective measures.

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However, the best part of this activity was that those who had chosen to be one of the doers did it with commitment.

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The most poignant fact that requires attention is the poor psychological and social conditioning of this small sample, which is the main reason why even educated citizens ignore all messages or rules regarding littering. They don’t find it embarrassing to litter but show reluctance when it comes to cleaning.  

STPI Cleaning

Most common aspect observed during the activity was yet again the reluctance of majority to come ahead or to join people in causes like cleanliness drives. We wonder how any logical person can ignore the satisfaction, which the group of doers found at the end of the day over a cup of tea with samosa’s (refreshment).

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In a couple of hours, the doers wrapped up the task, segregated the glass waste from other solid waste, and collected it at a single spot.

Shimla Cleaning Campaign

The Municipal Corporation of Shimla later collected the garbage for proper disposal (if any). SMC sanitation workers can be seen burning garbage in open daily. So, there is still no guarantee about the proper disposal of this solid waste collected during the cleaning.

Conclusion

Even though the majority did not participate, the group of doers was hoping to leave a message to them.

It is for sure that those who did participate in the cleaning would think before abandoning a disposable cup or cigarette packets in open.

Though we are skeptic of it, the STPI staff has assured that at least two dustbins would be placed inside the premise soon.  

As a vitriolic reality, however, litterbugs again set to work and a fresh lot of garbage begins to appear from the very next day. No message was taken from the cleaning drive. The onlookers failed the doers yet again.

We hope that group of doers won’t let these litterbugs spoil the place again. On being caught red-handed, these bugs will be given appropriate demonstration through sensible arguments, by debating the logic and reason.

Further, the civic body is required to conduct extensive surveys to assess the causes of littering behaviour and study the psycho-social aspects associated with lack of awareness that encourages littering.

Due to poor social conditioning related to disposal of garbage in open, most of us do not develop aesthetic sense. Because no one objected to littering, an individual doesn’t consider it a malpractice. We can say that they don’t feel guilty for littering and do not develop a sense to correct things as we grew up regularly witnessing this malpractice by people of all ages despite being educated. 

The State government need to encourage researchers including students in the local institutes to take up the task of conducting studies to find out causes for littering behaviour and other aspects related to the environmental protection. 

Madan has studied English Literature and Journalism from HP University and lives in Shimla. He is an amateur photographer and has been writing on topics ranging from environmental, socio-economic, development programs, education, eco-tourism, eco-friendly lifestyle and to green technologies for over 7 years now. He has an inclination for all things green, wonderful and loves to live in solitude. When not writing, he can be seen wandering, trying to capture world around him in his DSLR lens.

Environment

Draft National Forest Policy 2018: An invitation to wrath of privatization on forestland

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New Forest Policy of India

Shimla: The Draft National Forest Policy 2018, which is intended to replace the National Forest Policy, 1988, is being perceived as an attempt to privatise the forests on the name of increasing productivity through Public-Private-Partnership model.

Over 150 organizations and environmental activists from all over India including Himachal Pradesh have written to the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) raising objections to the serious flaws in it.

The government came out with this draft last month, for which they had invited comments and suggestions from concerned citizens before April 14.

After this proposal, the tribal, forest rights groups, and conservationists have rejected the policy on various grounds.  The strongest ground is the thrust on ‘production forestry’ and allowing entry of private companies in forestry projects for commercial plantations. 

Another big reason to worry is the authority the new Policy gives to Government to dilute the rights of the tribal people or those dependent on forest resources for their livelihood. The Forest Rights Act 2006 says the resources of a forest belong to its community.

Currently, there are provisions, which empower these forest communities to have a say when it comes to establishing commercial projects in their area. 

The environmental experts are of the opinion that the new policy is snatching this power from the community. It will minimize the resistance from locals while the government and private firms decide the fate of their forests.

Himachal Van Adhikar Manch is one of these 150 signatories of the submission made to the MoEFCC. 

The Manch condemned the draft and said it is facilitating the entry of the private sector in forestry.

Private sector works for profit and profit alone. The only way to protect forests is to make these habitants the incharge and strengthen sustainable forest-based livelihoods,

added the Manch convener, Akshay Jasrotia, added.

While there is a need to review the old policy of 1988, this draft undoes some very important principles that the previous policy had put in place for the protection of forests, strengthening of forest-dependent communities, and their role in this regard, the Manch said.

It is astonishing that this draft policy lacks perspective and recognition that was included in the Forest Rights Act 2006 to address the historical injustice inflicted on the Adivasis and other forest dwellers through the colonization of the forest.

The Act attempts to restore the forests back to its original custodians, caretakers and dependents, the Adivasis and other forest-dwelling people, and put in place democratic mechanisms to govern the forests’ said the memorandum.

However, the draft policy does not recognise such aspects. 

The policy comes close to the heels of another legislation called Compensatory Afforestation Fund Act, which has created an institutional mechanism for the utilisation of funds realised in lieu of forest land diversion for non-forest or developmental projects.

The objective of the Fund Act is to mitigate the impact of diversion of such forestland for dams, mines, industries etc.

However, the Act does not put in any safeguard to ensure that the community has a say in the process of utilisation of the funds for activities on forest land. It is in striking contrast to the provision for forest-dwelling communities in the FRA Act. 

In Himachal, where close to 70% of the geographical area is technically under forest land, the implementation of the FRA has been poor as it is. Forestland dependent people are being evicted by being labelled encroachers,

said Manshi Asher, a member of  Himdhara Collective,  and also a signatory to the submissions made to the MoEFCC.

Moves like the CAMPA and 2018-forest policy will further alienate people from forests and lead to conflicts. The forest department and private corporations will be taking on plantation drives in forests on which the locals are already dependent

, Manshi added. 

Is India’s Forest Cover Really Increasing?

As per the draft National Forest Policy, 2018, there has been an increase in forest and tree cover over the last decades and a “reduction in the diversion of forest land for other land uses despite compelling demands from the increasing population, industrialization, and rapid economic growth”.

 However, the State of the Forest Report 2017 says the forest cover has changed in the country and that there is an increase of one percent.

There is no separate data for plantations and forests, which makes it difficult to understand the actual extent of deforestation of natural forests, as well as the hidden diversion of forestland to industries. 

Many experts have pointed out that the reported increase in forest and tree cover does not necessarily include natural forests but manmade industrial /commercial monoculture plantations. 

In fact, the current diversion of forestlands to various “development” schemes is fast changing the landscape and degrading natural forests.

 According to an analysis by the Delhi-based environment group, Environment Impact Assessment Resource and Response Centre, the Indian government has, on an average, diverted 122 sq km of forests for development projects every year between 2014 and 2017.

This is equivalent to a forestland of the size of 63 football grounds being cleared every day for three years. In other words, in one day, India loses around 135 hectares of natural forestland due to development schemes.

Natural forests serve as a gene pool resource and help to maintain ecological balance. These forests need to be protected.

However, the draft National Forest Policy 2018, despite stating this objective, appears not to be in favor of conservation and regeneration of forests but for capture of forests by private, corporate entities through PPPs, production forestry, increasing productivity of plantations, production of quality timber and ignores fuel-wood and fodder for communities dependent on it

, Akshay Jasrotia added.

The Draft clearly facilitates the forest-industry interface. You can read detailed submission made to the MoEFCC here.

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Environment

Shimla city’s first grid-connected solar plant to save Rs. 97 lakhs on bill

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Solar power plants in Shimla city

Shimla: Shimla city today received its first grid-connected Solar Power Plant. The 34 KW plant is installed on the rooftop of the Himachal Pradesh Department of Environment, Science, and Technology.

This plant has been installed at a cost of Rs 19.23 lakh. In next 25 years, the plant is expected to save about Rs 97 lakhs on the electricity bill.  It was estimated that the plant will recover its installation and other expenditure within four to five years. Thereafter, it will generate revenue for the State.

The plant feature 112 solar panels of 1315 watt capacity per panel. The State Electricity Board has installed a bi-directional meter in the office premises to ensure energy inflow and outflow from solar plant to main electric grid.  

The information was provided by the Additional Chief Secretary and Principal Secretary to the Chief Minister, Manisha Nanda.

The Chief Minister Jai Ram Thakur inaugurated the plant. Director Department of Environment, Science and Technology, D.C. Rana and other senior officers of the department were also present on the occasion.

The solar energy is not only environment-friendly but also cost-effective. Such power plants would be set up not only in government establishments but also on private houses as well, the Chief Minister said.

Adopting renewable energy technology such as solar plants in office premises will not only save energy but also help in environmental conservation.

If each one of us adopts solar-based energy technologies, we all can contribute towards energy saving and to a great extent meet the energy demand of the world,

he said.

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Environment

PCB installs 12 electronic screens in Himachal, will display air quality

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HP PCB Electronic displays

Shimla: The State Government of Himachal Pradesh has launched 12 electronic display screens of the State Pollution Control Board,

The State PCB will provide complete detail of PM.10, Nitrogen Oxides and Sulfur Dioxide amounts in the air in the respective area.

These Screens have been installed at Shimla and Dharamshala towns and one each at Baddi, Damtal, Kala Amb, Manali, Parwanoo, Poanta Sahib, Sundernagar and Una at cost of Rs. 35 lakh, the government said.

In addition to this, these screens will also display details regarding environmental issues such as water and noise pollution, civil and bio-medical waste management, water management and temperature of the concerned cities.

The purpose, the government said, is to create environmental awareness and monitor, maintain a salubrious environment of the state.

Additional Chief Secretary Manisha Nanda, Member Secretary State Pollution Control Board Dr R.K. Pruthi and other officers of the Board were present during the launch by the Chief Minister Jai Ram Thakur.

There is, indeed, a dire need of creating awareness and taking preventive steps against the environmental pollution. Pollution is on rising in towns of Himachal. The Municipal Councils of respective districts do not have waste treatment plants and still use landfill sites.

The civic body of the capital Shimla is itself indulged in burning garbage in open. The construction has worsened the dust pollution while deforestation is taking place on a massive scale for the developmental projects like four lanes.

Feature Photo: Representational Purpose Only

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